Volume 531 Number 7593



Who ordered that? p.139

An unexpected data signal that could change everything has particle physicists salivating.

doi: 10.1038/531139b


Food processing p.139

A recreation of how early humans managed to eat a diet of meat hundreds of thousands of years before they had fire to cook it with, shows an ingenious use of tools to cut down on chewing time.

doi: 10.1038/531139a


Gene intelligence p.140

The risks and rewards of genome editing resonate beyond the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/531140a



‘Open-hardware’ pioneers push for low-cost lab kit p.147

Conference aims to raise awareness of shared resources for building lab equipment.

doi: 10.1038/531147a


How the US CRISPR patent probe will play out p.149

Decision could determine who profits from the gene-editing technique in future.

doi: 10.1038/531149a


Chinese gravitational-wave hunt hits crunch time p.150

The pressure is on to choose between several proposals for space-based detectors.

doi: 10.1038/531150a


Statisticians issue warning over misuse of P values p.151

Policy statement aims to halt missteps in the quest for certainty.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19503


Five million US seeds banked for resurrection experiment p.152

Project Baseline will monitor effects of climate change on plant evolution.

doi: 10.1038/531152a


First Zika-linked birth defects detected in Colombia p.153

Cases may signal start of anticipated wave of birth defects in country hit hard by Zika virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19502

News Features


CRISPR everywhere p.155


doi: 10.1038/531155a


CRISPR: gene editing is just the beginning p.156


doi: 10.1038/531156a


Welcome to the CRISPR zoo p.160


doi: 10.1038/531160a

News & Views


Molecular evolution: Sex accelerates adaptation p.176


doi: 10.1038/nature17304


Superconductors: Exponential boost for quantum information p.177


doi: 10.1038/531177a


Plant biology: LURE is bait for multiple receptors p.178


doi: 10.1038/531178a


Sustainable chemistry: Putting carbon dioxide to work p.180


doi: 10.1038/531180a


Ecology: Vegetation's responses to climate variability p.181


doi: 10.1038/nature17301


Neurodevelopment: Regeneration switch is a gas p.182


doi: 10.1038/nature17308



A hippocampal network for spatial coding during immobility and sleep p.185

In the mammalian navigational system, neurons have been identified in the CA2 region of the hippocampus that keep track of position when an animal is not moving.

doi: 10.1038/nature17144


Failure of RQC machinery causes protein aggregation and proteotoxic stress p.191

Defects in the ribosome quality control (RQC) complex, which clears proteins that stalled during translation, can cause neurodegeneration; here it is shown that in RQC-defective cells a peptide tail added by the RQC subunit 2 to stalled polypeptides promotes their aggregation and the sequestration of chaperones in these aggregates, affecting normal protein quality control processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16973


Structure of the voltage-gated two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.196

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana reveals the structure and the mechanism of voltage gating of this class of ubiquitous cation-selective ion channels.

doi: 10.1038/nature16446



A repeating fast radio burst p.202

Observations of repeated fast radio bursts, having dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with those of FRB 121102, show that the signals do not originate in a single cataclysmic event and may come from a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

doi: 10.1038/nature17168


Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands p.206

The splitting of zero-energy Majorana modes in a tunnel-coupled InAs nanowire with epitaxial aluminium is exponentially suppressed as the wire length is increased, resulting in protection of these modes; this result helps to establish the robust presence of Majorana modes and quantifies exponential protection in nanowire devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature17162


Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor p.210

Low-temperature measurements of the Hall effect in cuprate materials in which superconductivity is suppressed by high magnetic fields show that the pseudogap is not related to the charge ordering that has been seen at intermediate doping levels, but is instead linked to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at low doping.

doi: 10.1038/nature16983


Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C–H carboxylation p.215

Molten salts at intermediate temperatures enable efficient carbonate-promoted carboxylation of very weakly acidic C–H bonds, revealing a new way to transform inedible biomass and carbon dioxide into valuable feedstock chemicals.

doi: 10.1038/nature17185


Palladium-catalysed transannular C–H functionalization of alicyclic amines p.220

An approach to selectively manipulate the C–H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen is demonstrated by the synthesis of new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline, a drug used to treat nicotine addiction.

doi: 10.1038/nature16957


The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere p.225

The net balance of terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gases produced as a result of human activities and the climatic impact of this balance are uncertain; here the net cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, on the planetary energy budget from 2001 to 2010 is a warming of the planet.

doi: 10.1038/nature16946


Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability p.229

Using satellite data and a novel analytical approach, a new index of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability is developed, revealing areas of high sensitivity that include tundra, boreal forest, tropical forest and temperate grasslands.

doi: 10.1038/nature16986


Sex speeds adaptation by altering the dynamics of molecular evolution p.233

In a comparison between replicate sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sexual reproduction increases fitness by reducing clonal interference and alters the type of mutations that get fixed by natural selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature17143


MARCKS-like protein is an initiating molecule in axolotl appendage regeneration p.237

The salamander, or axolotl, is well known to be able to regenerate missing body parts, but the signals that drive the initial proliferative response were unclear; now, a secreted protein has been identified that induces the initial cell cycle response after injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature16974


A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female attractants in plants p.241

A male cell-surface receptor-like kinase that responds to the female chemoattractant LURE1 on the pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana is identified; LURE1 triggers dimerization of the receptor components and activation of the kinase activity, and the transformation of a component of the A. thaliana receptor to the Capsella rubella species partially breaks down the reproductive isolation barrier.

doi: 10.1038/nature16975


Tip-localized receptors control pollen tube growth and LURE sensing in Arabidopsis p.245

Pollen-specific receptor-like kinase 6 (PRK6), which signals through the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors ROPGEFs, is required for sensing of the LURE1 attractant peptide in Arabidopsis thaliana, and functions together with other PRK family kinases; when introduced into the pollen tubes of the related species Capsella rubella, PRK6 could confer responsiveness to AtLURE1.

doi: 10.1038/nature17413


MIMIVIRE is a defence system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage p.249

MIMIVIRE is a novel nucleic-acid-based immune system against virophage infection in the giant virus mimivirus.

doi: 10.1038/nature17146

がん:NAFLDはCD4+ Tリンパ球の選択的な消失を引き起こして肝細胞がんの発生を促進する

NAFLD causes selective CD4+ T lymphocyte loss and promotes hepatocarcinogenesis p.253

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is shown to promote hepatocellular carcinoma through the generation of linoleic acid, disruption of mitochondrial function and selective loss of CD4+ T cells, leading to impaired anti-tumour immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16969


Structure, inhibition and regulation of two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.258

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana is reported, revealing the mechanisms of ion permeation, inhibition channel activation, and location of regulatory sites and voltage-sensing domains.

doi: 10.1038/nature17194

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