Volume 524 Number 7564



Science in the community p.135

Randomized controlled trials are providing evidence about interventions in health, education and international development, but they are only part of a suite of useful tools.

doi: 10.1038/524135a



Japan’s nuclear revival won’t lower carbon emissions enough p.143

Return to nuclear energy is part of a plan that is not in line with global climate target.

doi: 10.1038/524143a


Millennium Villages Project launches retrospective analysis p.144

Anti-poverty programme seeks to gauge success after ten years in Africa.

doi: 10.1038/524144a


GM-crop opponents expand probe into ties between scientists and industry p.145

Activist group compels records from 40 researchers at US public universities.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18146


Proposed Ebola biobank would strengthen African science p.146

International public-health officials discuss how to maximize research benefits of a widely dispersed collection.

doi: 10.1038/524146a


Age of the neutrino: Plans to decipher mysterious particle take shape p.148

A graphical guide to four giant experiments spread across the world.

doi: 10.1038/524148a

News Features


Can randomized trials eliminate global poverty? p.150


doi: 10.1038/524150a

News & Views


Organic chemistry: A cure for catalyst poisoning p.164


doi: 10.1038/524164a


Regenerative biology: Maintaining liver mass p.165


doi: 10.1038/nature15201


DNA replication: Strand separation unravelled p.166


doi: 10.1038/nature14643


Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized p.168


doi: 10.1038/524168a


Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle p.169


doi: 10.1038/nature14640


Longevity: Mapping the path to a longer life p.170


doi: 10.1038/524170a



Universal allosteric mechanism for Gα activation by GPCRs p.173

There are ~800 human GPCRs and 16 different Gα proteins; this study revealed the molecular details of Gα activation by GPCRs and suggests that a universal activation mechanism governs Gα activation—the details of this mechanism can explain how the GPCR–Gα system diversified rapidly, while conserving the allosteric activation mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14663



Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver p.180

In the uninjured liver, a population of self-renewing, diploid hepatocytes is identified near the central vein; these cells respond to Wnt signals that are provided by the adjacent central vein endothelial cells, and can give rise to all other hepatocytes to maintain liver homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14863

構造生物学:真核生物MCM複合体の分解能3.8 Åでの構造

Structure of the eukaryotic MCM complex at 3.8 Å p.186

Cryo-electron microscopy is used to visualize the double hexamer of the eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM), which is assembled during the G1 phase of DNA replication; two interdigitated hexamers have a central channel that tightly fits a DNA duplex, and the orientation of the tilted single hexamers sheds light on many functional aspects, particularly in the initial origin DNA melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature14685



A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web p.192

A two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of a large, luminous filament of the cosmic web near QSO UM287 reveals that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a 1013-solar-mass dark-matter halo, with a geometry that is strongly suggestive of cold flow accretion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14616


High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio OPEN p.196

The CPT theorem (the assumption that physical laws are invariant under simultaneous charge conjugation, parity transformation and time reversal) is central to the standard model of particle physics; here the charge-to-mass ratio of the antiproton is compared to that of the proton, with a precision of 69 parts per trillion, and the result supports the CPT theorem at the atto-electronvolt scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature14861


Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain p.200

This study shows that metallic glasses can be rejuvenated (taken to higher energy states with more plasticity) by thermally cycling them at relatively low temperatures (well below the glass transition temperature); this is attributed to the effect of intrinsic structural inhomogeneities in the glassy state, which translate into localized internal strains as the temperature is cycled and the different regions expand and contract by different amounts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14674


Graphene kirigami p.204

The ratio of in-plane stiffness to out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene is shown to be similar to that of a piece of paper, which allows ideas from kirigami (a variation of origami that allows cutting) to be applied to micrometre-scale graphene sheets to build mechanically stretchable yet robust electrodes, springs and hinges.

doi: 10.1038/nature14588


Dosage delivery of sensitive reagents enables glove-box-free synthesis p.208

A method of supplying exactly the amounts of air- and moisture-sensitive catalysts and ligands needed for three commonly used syntheses in a stable, storable form in a sealed capsule is described; it should reduce the unnecessary waste of chemicals, money and time.

doi: 10.1038/nature14654


The role of ridges in the formation and longevity of flat slabs p.212

Flat-slab subduction is often proposed to cause deformation of continental crust far from plate boundaries as well as unusual patterns of volcanism; a study of the largest-known flat slab, located in Peru, now shows that the ridge is necessary for the formation and longevity of the flat slab, whereas other contributing factors such as trench retreat and suction alone will not suffice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14648


An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor p.216

Analysis of DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old modern human from Romania reveals that 6–9% of the genome is derived from Neanderthals, with the individual having a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back.

doi: 10.1038/nature14558


The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties OPEN p.220

Octopus bimaculoides genome and transcriptome sequencing demonstrated that a core gene repertoire broadly similar to that of other invertebrate bilaterians is accompanied by expansions in the protocadherin and C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor families and large-scale genome rearrangements closely associated with octopus-specific transposable elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14668


Identification of cis-suppression of human disease mutations by comparative genomics p.225

Patterns of amino acid conservation have been used to guide the interpretation of the disease-causing potential of genetic variants in patients; now, an appreciable fraction of pathogenic alleles are shown to be fixed in the genomes of other species, suggesting that the genomic context has an important role in allele pathogenicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14497


Genetic compensation induced by deleterious mutations but not gene knockdowns p.230

Zebrafish embryos injected with egfl7 morpholino exhibit severe vascular defects but egfl7 mutants do not show any obvious phenotypes, illustrating the power of comparing mutants and morphants to identify modifier genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14580


Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease p.234

Mutations in mitochondrial (mt)DNA are associated with severe disorders for which treatment is currently limited; this study shows that mtDNA mutations can be genetically corrected and normal metabolic function restored in cells derived from patients with mtDNA disease and reprogrammed to pluripotency through factor-mediated reprogramming or via a somatic cell nuclear transfer approach.

doi: 10.1038/nature14546


Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes p.239

A high-content phenotypic screening method has been developed allowing the first systematic RNA interference screen for nearly 800 genes mediating mammalian meiosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14568


The CREB coactivator CRTC2 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating SREBP1 p.243

Studies in mice reveal that CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) acts as a mediator of mTOR signalling in the liver to regulate SREBP1-controlled lipid homeostasis during feeding and diabetes; overexpression of a CRTC2 mutant defective for mTOR regulation improves the lipogenic program and insulin sensitivity in obese mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14557


Crucial HSP70 co-chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation p.247

An efficient protein disaggregation system uncovered in metazoan cells requires transient interactions between J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B, which synergistically boost HSP70-dependent disaggregation activity, providing a flexible further level of regulation for metazoan protein quality control, with direct relevance to human diseases such as age-related neurodegeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature14884


X-ray structure of a mammalian stearoyl-CoA desaturase p.252

The crystal structure of mouse SCD1 bound to fatty acid stearoyl-CoA is solved at 2.6 Å resolution; the structure reveals a novel geometry for the dimetal centre, and the acyl chain of the bound fatty acid is shown to be shielded and shaped to a particular conformation by the enzyme, providing a structural basis for the selectivity of fatty acid metabolism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14549

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