Volume 560 Number 7716



How lizards got their big feet p.5

Creatures that survived wild weather in the Caribbean offer a glimpse of natural selection in action.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05821-7


Pinning extreme weather on climate change is now routine and reliable science p.5

Research has finally generated the tools to attribute heatwaves and downpours to global warming.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05839-x



There’s water on Mars! Signs of buried lake tantalize scientists p.13

The lake would be the first body of liquid water ever detected on the red planet, if observations by a European spacecraft are confirmed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05795-6


Chinese vaccine scandal unlikely to dent childhood immunization rates p.14

Vaccines are mandated for children starting school in China and enjoy widespread public support.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05835-1


CRISPR plants now subject to tough GM laws in European Union p.16

Top court’s ruling threatens research on gene-edited crops in the bloc.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05814-6


Milky Way’s black hole provides long-sought test of Einstein’s general relativity p.17

An observation decades in the making confirms predictions about how light behaves in an immense gravitational field.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05825-3


Push to weaken US Endangered Species Act runs into roadblocks p.17

Policymakers have tried, unsuccessfully, to change this law for decades.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05834-2

News Features


Droughts, heatwaves and floods: How to tell when climate change is to blame p.20


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05849-9

News & Views


Hyperactive soil microbes might weaken the terrestrial carbon sink p.32


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05842-2


Peptide secretion triggers diabetes p.33


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05710-z


The origin of blue diamonds p.35


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05830-6


Leukaemia follows a blood-vessel track to enter the nervous system p.35


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05693-x


Reflection forbidden and refraction reversed in an artificial crystal p.37


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05806-6


An unexpected trigger for calorie burning in brown fat p.38


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05619-7


Developing neurons are innately inclined to learn on the job p.39


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05737-2



Machine learning at the energy and intensity frontiers of particle physics p.41

The application and development of machine-learning methods used in experiments at the frontiers of particle physics (such as the Large Hadron Collider) are reviewed, including recent advances based on deep learning.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0361-2



Genome-centric view of carbon processing in thawing permafrost p.49

Analysis of more than 1,500 microbial genomes sheds light on the processing of carbon released as permafrost thaws.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0338-1


Leukaemia hijacks a neural mechanism to invade the central nervous system p.55

Expression of α6 integrin enables acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells to use neural migratory pathways to invade the central nervous system and metastasize to the brain.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0342-5



Topological negative refraction of surface acoustic waves in a Weyl phononic crystal p.61

Sound waves in a specially designed crystal undergo ‘topologically protected’ negative refraction, whereby no reflection is allowed, at certain facets of the crystal and positive refraction at others.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0367-9


Photoswitching topology in polymer networks with metal–organic cages as crosslinks p.65

Using topology-switching metal–ligand cages to crosslink polymer networks produces gels whose chemical and mechanical properties can be radically and reversibly switched on irradiation.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0339-0


Direct arylation of strong aliphatic C–H bonds p.70

Direct coupling of aliphatic C–H nucleophiles to aryl electrophiles is described, through the combination of light-driven polyoxometalate hydrogen atom transfer and nickel catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0366-x


A two-million-year-long hydroclimatic context for hominin evolution in southeastern Africa p.76

A multiple-proxy reconstruction for the catchment of the Limpopo River and of sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean provides evidence for hydroclimatic changes that may have been important in hominin evolution.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0309-6


Globally rising soil heterotrophic respiration over recent decades p.80

Global soil respiration is rising, probably in response to environmental changes, suggesting that climate-driven losses of soil carbon are occurring worldwide.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0358-x


Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle p.84

Mineral inclusions in blue boron-bearing diamonds reveal that such diamonds are among the deepest diamonds ever found and indicate a viable pathway for the deep-mantle recycling of crustal elements.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0334-5


Hurricane-induced selection on the morphology of an island lizard p.88

Two populations of Anolis lizards that survived Hurricanes Irma and Maria had larger toepads, longer forelimbs and shorter hindlimbs relative to the pre-hurricane populations, which suggests hurricane-induced natural selection.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0352-3


Ecosystem restructuring along the Great Barrier Reef following mass coral bleaching p.92

Fish and invertebrate communities transformed across the span of the Great Barrier Reef following the 2016 bleaching event due to a decline in coral-feeding fishes resulting from coral loss, and because of different regional responses of key trophic groups to the direct effect of temperature.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0359-9


Differential tuning of excitation and inhibition shapes direction selectivity in ferret visual cortex p.97

Inhibition to the null direction of motion has a critical role in the direction selectivity of neurons in ferret primary visual cortex.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0354-1


Accumulation of succinate controls activation of adipose tissue thermogenesis p.102

A comparative metabolomics approach is used to identify succinate as a key activator of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0353-2


Pancreatic islets communicate with lymphoid tissues via exocytosis of insulin peptides p.107

A sensitive T cell tracking assay reveals immunogenic activity of specific catabolized peptide fragments of insulin and their effects on T cell activity in lymph nodes, highlighting communication between pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissue.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0341-6


53BP1–RIF1–shieldin counteracts DSB resection through CST- and Polα-dependent fill-in p.112

53BP1 and shieldin recruit the CTC1–STN1–TEN1 complex and polymerase-α to sites of DNA damage to help control the repair of double-strand breaks.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0324-7


The shieldin complex mediates 53BP1-dependent DNA repair p.117

The 53BP1 effector complex shieldin is involved in non-homologous end-joining and immunoglobulin class switching, and acts to protect DNA ends to facilitate the repair of DNA by 53BP1.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0340-7


53BP1 cooperation with the REV7–shieldin complex underpins DNA structure-specific NHEJ p.122

The specificity of 53BP1 and its co-factors for particular DNA substrates during non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) derives from REV7–shieldin, a four-subunit DNA-binding complex that is required for REV7-dependent NHEJ but not for REV7-dependent DNA interstrand cross-link repair.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0362-1


Structures of human Patched and its complex with native palmitoylated sonic hedgehog p.128

High-resolution structures of the human plasma membrane protein patched 1 alone and in complex with the native form of the ligand sonic hedgehog are determined.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0308-7

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