目次

Editorials

小規模農家を対象にした中国の大規模な農業プロジェクトから、科学的なデータの収集と共有が、持続可能な農業の実現につながることが示された。

Chinese project offers a brighter farming future p.141

A massive, decade-long experiment involving millions of Chinese farmers demonstrates an evidence-based approach to sustainability.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02742-3

科学を広めるには、データや証拠だけでなく、SFのように魅力的な物語性が必要になる。

Learn to tell science stories p.141

Ocean researchers are among those inspired by science fiction to tell diverse tales of the future.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02740-5

NatureおよびNature関連誌では、カスタムメイドのソフトウエアを利用した研究について、場合によってはそのプログラムも査読の対象とする。

Does your code stand up to scrutiny? p.142

Nature journals encourage researchers who submit papers that rely on bespoke software to provide the programs for peer review.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02741-4

News

NASAが、有人月探査計画を再開へ。

US scientists plot return to the Moon's surface p.149

Lunar researchers want to take advantage of Trump administration’s political interest.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02697-5

欧州食品安全機関が、ネオニコチノイド系農薬はミツバチに極めて有害であるとの結論を。

EU expected to vote on pesticide ban after major scientific review p.150

Survey of more than 1,500 studies concludes that neonicotinoids harm bees.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02639-1

わずかにずらして積層した2層のグラフェンからなる超格子が、超伝導性を。

Surprise graphene discovery could unlock secrets of superconductivity p.151

Physicists make misaligned sheets of the carbon material conduct electricity without resistance.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02773-w

中国で大気汚染対策として建設された、煙突型の超巨大空気清浄機の効果に期待が。

China tests giant air cleaner to combat smog p.152

Prototype offers innovative solution to major public health problem.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02704-9

カナダの2018年度予算では、基礎科学研究に大きな額が。

Canadian science wins billions in new budget p.153

Researchers pleased with unfettered funding for granting councils.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02529-6

米国で、新たな静止衛星が打ち上げられ、気象予報が改善される見込みが。

Latest US weather satellite highlights forecasting challenges p.154

Researchers begin to tackle the technical obstacles to incorporate observations from space into weather models.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02630-w

News Features

気候変動:無慈悲な海

Attack of the extreme floods p.156

海水準が上昇すれば、異常洪水がたびたび起こるようになるだろう。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02745-0

News & Views

惑星科学:より深く木星を調べる

Planetary science: A deeper look at Jupiter p.168

NASAの探査機ジュノーによって、木星の重力場が精密に測定された。そのデータから、今回、木星内部の構造とダイナミクスの詳細が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02612-y

人間行動学:単純な道徳律が協力を支える

Human behaviour: Simple moral code supports cooperation p.169

協力の進化は、議論になることの多い主題である。人々が互いを判断するシナリオの評価研究によって、協力の進化を促すには単純な道徳規則で十分であることが、今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02621-x

構造生物学:新世代抗精神病薬の合理的な薬物設計

Structural biology: A new era of rationally designed antipsychotics p.170

統合失調症を治療する理想的な薬剤は、D2ドーパミン受容体を最適な結合動態で選択的に阻害すると想定されている。抗精神病薬に結合したD2の構造は、そうした薬剤の設計方法の解明に役立つ。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02328-z

材料科学:超伝導体によって駆動されるトランジスター

Materials science: Transistors driven by superconductors p.172

超伝導体と半導体がシームレスな界面を形成するハイブリッドトランジスターデバイスが作られた。こうした界面の研究によって、エレクトロニクスにおける革新的応用への道が開かれる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02717-4

進化:山々が作り出す多様性

Evolution: Mountains of diversity p.173

今回、世界中の山々における鳥類の多様性と進化の大規模な研究によって、標高、種の豊かさ、新種が生まれる速度の関係が調べられた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02062-6

Review

科学的方法論:メタ解析およびリサーチ・シンセシスの科学

Meta-analysis and the science of research synthesis p.175

Meta-analysis—the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results—has been both revolutionary and controversial, with rapid advances and broad implementation resulting in substantial scientific advances, but not without pitfalls.

doi: 10.1038/nature25753

Articles

材料科学:GaN/NbNエピタキシャル半導体/超伝導体ヘテロ構造

GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures p.183

Group III/nitride semiconductors have been grown epitaxially on the superconductor niobium nitride, allowing the superconductor’s macroscopic quantum effects to be combined with the semiconductors’ electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature25768

遺伝学:ビーカー現象とヨーロッパ北西部におけるゲノムの変化

The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe p.190

Genome-wide data from 400 individuals indicate that the initial spread of the Beaker archaeological complex between Iberia and central Europe was propelled by cultural diffusion, but that its spread into Britain involved a large-scale migration that permanently replaced about ninety per cent of the ancestry in the previously resident population.

doi: 10.1038/nature25738

遺伝学:ヨーロッパ南東部のゲノム史

The genomic history of southeastern Europe p.197

Genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe between 12000 and 500 ʙᴄ reveals that the region acted as a genetic crossroads before and after the arrival of farming.

doi: 10.1038/nature25778

神経科学:飲水欲求調節の基盤となる階層的な神経構造

Hierarchical neural architecture underlying thirst regulation p.204

Thirst is regulated by hierarchical neural circuits in the lamina terminalis, and these integrate the instinctive need for water with consequent drinking behaviour to maintain internal water homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature25488

微生物遺伝学:ヒト腸の微生物相形成に際しては環境が宿主の遺伝的性質より優位になる

Environment dominates over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota p.210

Statistical analyses of a metagenomics-sequenced human cohort identify a relatively minor role for genetics in determining microbiome composition and show that several human phenotypes are as strongly associated with the gut microbiome as with host genetics.

doi: 10.1038/nature25973

Letters

惑星科学:木星の極を取り囲むサイクロンの集団

Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles p.216

Visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole of Jupiter by the Juno spacecraft reveal polygonal patterns of large cyclones; it is unknown how these cyclones evolved, or how they persist without merging.

doi: 10.1038/nature25491

惑星科学:木星の非対称な重力場の観測

Measurement of Jupiter’s asymmetric gravity field p.220

Precise Doppler tracking of the Juno spacecraft in its polar orbit around Jupiter is used to determine the planet’s gravity harmonics, showing north–south asymmetry caused by atmospheric and interior flows.

doi: 10.1038/nature25776

惑星科学:数千キロメートルの深さに広がる木星大気のジェット気流

Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep p.223

The determination of Jupiter’s odd gravitational harmonics by the Juno spacecraft reveals that the observed jet streams extend to about three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops.

doi: 10.1038/nature25793

惑星科学:木星深部での差動回転の抑制

A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior p.227

The determination of Jupiter’s even gravitational moments by the Juno spacecraft reveals that more than three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops, differential rotation is suppressed and the gas giant’s interior rotates as a solid body.

doi: 10.1038/nature25775

ナノスケール材料:単層原子結晶分子超格子

Monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices p.231

Superlattices consisting of alternating monolayer atomic crystals and molecular layers allow access to stable phosphorene monolayers with competitive transistor performance and to bulk monolayer materials with tunable optoelectronic properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature25774

地球科学:下部マントルへの海洋地殻の再循環を示すダイヤモンド中のCaSiO3ペロブスカイト

CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle p.237

The composition of natural calcium silicate perovskite, the fourth most abundant mineral in the Earth, found within a diamond indicates an origin from oceanic crust subducted deeper than 700 kilometres into the Earth’s mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature25972

人間行動学:協力の進化における社会規範の複雑さと過去の評判

Social norm complexity and past reputations in the evolution of cooperation p.242

In a binary decision game in which players strategically help certain individuals but not others, simple moral principles maximize cooperation, even when including the historical reputations of players.

doi: 10.1038/nature25763

進化学:全球の標高多様性と鳥類の多様化

Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds p.246

A global study of all bird species in mountainous areas shows that richness decreases predictably with elevation, whereas diversification rates increase.

doi: 10.1038/nature25794

発生生物学:進化的に保存された上皮前駆細胞による肺胞の再生

Regeneration of the lung alveolus by an evolutionarily conserved epithelial progenitor p.251

An evolutionarily conserved alveolar epithelial progenitor lineage that derives from alveolar type 2 cells is responsive to Wnt signalling and acts as a major facultative progenitor in regenerating the distal lung.

doi: 10.1038/nature25786

幹細胞:SMAD2/3のインタラクトームから明らかになった、多能性におけるTGFβのm6A mRNAメチル化の制御

The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency p.256

The TGFβ pathway has essential roles in embryonic development, organ homeostasis, tissue repair and disease. These diverse effects are mediated through the intracellular effectors SMAD2 and SMAD3 (hereafter SMAD2/3), whose canonical function is to control the activity of target genes by interacting with transcriptional regulators. Therefore, a complete description of the factors that interact with SMAD2/3 in a given cell type would have broad implications for many areas of cell biology. Here we describe the interactome of SMAD2/3 in human pluripotent stem cells. This analysis reveals that SMAD2/3 is involved in multiple molecular processes in addition to its role in transcription. In particular, we identify a functional interaction with the METTL3–METTL14–WTAP complex, which mediates the conversion of adenosine to N6-methyladenosine (m6A) on RNA. We show that SMAD2/3 promotes binding of the m6A methyltransferase complex to a subset of transcripts involved in early cell fate decisions. This mechanism destabilizes specific SMAD2/3 transcriptional targets, including the pluripotency factor gene NANOG, priming them for rapid downregulation upon differentiation to enable timely exit from pluripotency. Collectively, these findings reveal the mechanism by which extracellular signalling can induce rapid cellular responses through regulation of the epitranscriptome. These aspects of TGFβ signalling could have far-reaching implications in many other cell types and in diseases such as cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature25784

分子生物学:カイコガの生殖系列のpiRNA生合成におけるミトコンドリア局在因子PapiおよびZucchiniの階層的役割

Hierarchical roles of mitochondrial Papi and Zucchini in Bombyx germline piRNA biogenesis p.260

The biogenesis of piRNAs in the silkworm Bombyx is simpler than in Drosophila, with the exonucleases Trim and Nbr having no major role, and the endonuclease Zuc acting at the 3′ rather than the 5′ end.

doi: 10.1038/nature25788

分子生物学:真核生物CMGヘリカーゼの活性化機構

The mechanism of eukaryotic CMG helicase activation p.265

In vitro experiments, using purified proteins and an assay that detects DNA unwinding, reveal the mechanism of activation of eukaryotic DNA replication.

doi: 10.1038/nature25787

構造生物学:非定型抗精神病薬リスペリドンに結合したD2ドーパミン受容体の構造

Structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone p.269

An X-ray structure of the D2 dopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone reveals an extended binding pocket and indicates structural features that could be used to design drugs that specifically target the D2 receptor.

doi: 10.1038/nature25758

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