目次

Editorials

地球環境の国際共同研究は、本領発揮できるよう、じっくり時間をかけて進めるべきだ。

Future present p.7

A young global-sustainability platform deserves time to find its feet.

doi: 10.1038/531007b

英国が設けた新しい規制の不適切な文言のために、研究者から政治家への科学的助言が封じられることがあってはならない。

Unintended consequences p.7

After the introduction of a clumsily worded new rule, the UK government should move quickly to reassure scientists that they can continue to advise policymakers.

doi: 10.1038/531007a

脳刺激の医療目的以外の使用について、その意味や影響をしっかり検討するべき時が来ている。

Brain power p.8

As brain stimulation finds non-medical uses, now is the time to consider its implications.

doi: 10.1038/531008a

News

記録的な暖冬による北極海氷厚変動のリアルタイムでの観測に、地球観測衛星CryoSat-2が威力を発揮。

Speedier Arctic data as warm winter shrinks sea ice p.15

Scientists push for better monitoring of what remains.

doi: 10.1038/531015a

インドがバイオ予算を増額し、世界のゲノミクス研究を牽引するという夢を堅持。

India’s budget keeps dream of genomics hub alive p.16

Biotechnology agency wants to upgrade capabilities to kick-start economic growth.

doi: 10.1038/531016a

ウクライナの緊縮予算が、ソ連時代を引きずる科学体制を近代化する試みの妨げに。

Conflicting laws threaten Ukrainian science p.18

Country’s austerity budget stands in way of law to modernize Soviet-era academy.

doi: 10.1038/531018a

ジカ熱への素早い対応の裏には、エボラ出血熱の大流行から得られた教訓が。

Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response p.19

Agencies rush to show that outbreak tactics have improved.

doi: 10.1038/531019a

収まりつつある今回の史上最大規模のエルニーニョ現象からは、かつてないほど詳細で膨大なデータが。

Epic El Niño yields massive data trove p.20

Waning warming event studied in unprecedented detail.

doi: 10.1038/531020a

宇宙重力波望遠鏡の実現を目指した技術実証機であるESAのLISAパスファインダーのテストが成功。

Successful test drive for space-based gravitational-wave detector p.20

Mission paves the way for planned €1-billion space observatory.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19452

News Features

エネルギー:水圧破砕はヨーロッパの力となるか

Can fracking power Europe? p.22

ヨーロッパ各国で、米国にならって水圧破砕法による天然ガス生産が試みられているが、期待されたような成果は挙がっていない。

doi: 10.1038/531022a

材料科学:ナノスケールの虹

The nanolight revolution is coming p.26

カラフルな蛍光を発するウイルス程度の大きさの粒子は、テレビからがんの治療まで、さまざまな分野に革命をもたらす可能性を秘めている。

doi: 10.1038/531026a

News & Views

有機化学:電気で開始される化学反応

Organic chemistry: Reactions triggered electrically p.38

電場を使って化学反応を制御できることが、単一分子実験によって明らかになった。また、その反応の速度は印加された電場の方向と強さの両方によって変えられることも分かった。

doi: 10.1038/531038a

進化:ミトコンドリアの登場は第二幕から

Evolution: Mitochondria in the second act p.39

細胞小器官であるミトコンドリアの出現につながった細胞内共生事象は、複雑な細胞の進化の過程で、現在考えられているよりも遅く起こったらしいことが、大規模な系統ゲノミクス研究によって明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16876

重力波:新しい天文学の夜明け

Gravitational waves: Dawn of a new astronomy p.40

合体するブラックホール系から生じた重力波が観測されたことは、宇宙をのぞく新しい窓が開いたことを意味しており、これによって最も強い場合の重力が調べられ、またブラックホールなどの宇宙物理学的な系について多くの意外な事実が明らかになると期待される。

doi: 10.1038/nature17306

幹細胞:食餌中の脂肪は腸の調節異常を促進する

Stem cells: Dietary fat promotes intestinal dysregulation p.42

マウスでは、高脂肪食が腸前駆細胞の細胞運命がもっと幹細胞に似たものになるように誘導し、腸のサイズを変化させ、腫瘍の発病率を高めることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/531042a

宇宙科学:銀河系外からの宇宙線

Space science: Cosmic rays beyond the knees p.43

宇宙線観測が目的の電波技術が進展したことで、このような加速された粒子の一部の起源について、新たな光が当てられるようになり、こうした粒子が以前に考えられていたよりもずっと遠くから飛来してきた可能性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/531043a

再生:幹細胞で腸に神経系を作り出す

Regeneration: Stem cells make the bowel nervous p.44

ヒルシュスプルング病では、遠位腸管に腸神経系(ENS)が存在しない。幹細胞から作られたENS前駆細胞を出生後に移植すると、この疾患のマウスモデルで死亡が防がれることが、今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16877

Articles

がんゲノミクス:ゲノム解析から明らかになった膵臓がんの分子的サブタイプ

Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer p.47

An integrated genomic analysis of 456 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identifies four subtypes defined by transcriptional expression profiles and show that these are associated with distinct histopathological characteristics and differential prognosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature16965

がんの代謝:高脂肪食は腸前駆細胞の幹細胞性と腫瘍発生性を高める

High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors p.53

A high-fat diet increases the number of intestinal stem cells in mammals, both in vivo and in intestinal organoids; a pathway that involves PPAR-δ confers organoid-initiating capacity to non-stem cells and induces them to form in vivo tumours after loss of the Apc tumour suppressor.

doi: 10.1038/nature17173

微生物学:細菌の収縮性尾部構造のプライミングと重合

Priming and polymerization of a bacterial contractile tail structure p.59

A combination of X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, functional assays and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy shows that a protein of previously unknown function, TssA, forms a dodecameric complex that interacts with components of the tube and sheath of the type VI secretion system of bacteria, and that it primes and coordinates biogenesis of both the tail tube and the sheath.

doi: 10.1038/nature17182

構造生物学:BAM複合体による外膜タンパク質挿入の構造基盤

Structural basis of outer membrane protein insertion by the BAM complex p.64

Two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM complex) are presented, one of which includes all five subunits (BamA–BamE), in two distinct conformational states; together with functional assays and molecular dynamics stimulations, these structures help to generate a model for outer membrane protein insertion.

doi: 10.1038/nature17199

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:電波観測による1017~1017.5電子ボルトの宇宙線における大きな軽質量成分

A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations p.70

Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1018 electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies. Cosmic rays initiate air showers—cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere—and their masses can be inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum (Xmax; the depth of the air shower when it contains the most particles) or of the composition of shower particles reaching the ground. Current measurements have either high uncertainty, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays is a rapidly developing technique for determining Xmax (refs 10, 11) with a duty cycle of, in principle, nearly 100 per cent. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic electrons and positrons in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge excess in the shower front. Here we report radio measurements of Xmax with a mean uncertainty of 16 grams per square centimetre for air showers initiated by cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1017.5 electronvolts. This high resolution in Xmax enables us to determine the mass spectrum of the cosmic rays: we find a mixed composition, with a light-mass fraction (protons and helium nuclei) of about 80 per cent. Unless, contrary to current expectations, the extragalactic component of cosmic rays contributes substantially to the total flux below 1017.5 electronvolts, our measurements indicate the existence of an additional galactic component, to account for the light composition that we measured in the 1017–1017.5 electronvolt range.

doi: 10.1038/nature16976

量子光学:共振器によるスピン緩和の制御

Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity p.74

By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity and tuning the spins to the cavity resonance, the rate of spin relaxation is increased by three orders of magnitude compared to that of detuned spins; in such a regime, spontaneous emission of radiation is the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16944

材料科学:すべりやすい非対称な突起上での凝縮

Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps p.78

A surface engineering approach is described that is inspired by the water-condensation capability of the bumps on desert beetles, the droplet transportation facilitated by cactus spines and the slippery coating of the pitcher plant, to produce a structure with many water-harvesting applications.

doi: 10.1038/nature16956

化学:高活性触媒の前駆体としての安定なアモルファス・ジョージャイト

Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst p.83

Hydroxycarbonate minerals such as zincian malachite and aurichalcite are well known precursors to catalysts for methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water–gas shift reactions; here, a supercritical antisolvent method is used to prepare highly stable georgeite—a hydroxycarbonate mineral that has hitherto been ignored because of its rarity, but which is found to be a superior catalyst precursor.

doi: 10.1038/nature16935

化学:ディールス・アルダー反応の静電触媒反応

Electrostatic catalysis of a Diels–Alder reaction p.88

Theory suggests that many chemical reactions (not simply, as is often thought, redox reactions) might be catalysed by an applied electric field; experimental evidence for this is now provided from single-molecule studies of the formation of carbon–carbon bonds in a Diels–Alder reaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature16989

地震学:上盤プレートが2011年マグニチュード9.0東北沖地震の地震時すべりを支配した

Upper-plate controls on co-seismic slip in the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake p.92

Residual topography and gravity anomalies reveal a tectonic boundary in northeast Japan, which is proposed to represent the offshore continuation of the Median Tectonic Line; the contrast in frictional properties across this structure may control earthquake behaviour there, as recently demonstrated by the giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

doi: 10.1038/nature16945

進化生物学:祖先的脊椎動物の脳の複雑な領域化を裏付ける円口類からの証拠

Evidence from cyclostomes for complex regionalization of the ancestral vertebrate brain p.97

The brain of the hagfish, a cyclostome related to the lamprey, develops domains equivalent to the median ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip, resembling the brains of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), suggesting that brain regionalization in jawed vertebrates occurred before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes more than 500 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature16518

進化生物学:キメラな原核生物起源を持つ宿主によるミトコンドリアの後期獲得

Late acquisition of mitochondria by a host with chimaeric prokaryotic ancestry p.101

Evidence that among the eukaryotic ancestor genes, those derived from the proto-mitochondrion have the closest evolutionary distances to their bacterial relatives.

doi: 10.1038/nature16941

再生医療:ヒルシュスプルング病の細胞治療や創薬のためのヒトENS細胞系譜の誘導

Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease p.105

A differentiation protocol to obtain enteric nervous system (ENS) progenitors and a range of neurons from human pluripotent stem cells is developed; the cells can migrate and graft to the colon of a chick embryo and an adult mouse colon, including in a mouse model of Hirschsprung disease, in which a functional rescue is observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature16951

がんの代謝:変異型Krasのコピー数は代謝の再プログラム化と治療感受性を決定する

Mutant Kras copy number defines metabolic reprogramming and therapeutic susceptibilities p.110

Mutant Kras lung tumours are not a single disease but comprise two classes of tumours with distinct metabolic profiles, prognosis and therapeutic susceptibility, which can be discriminated by their relative mutant Kras allelic content.

doi: 10.1038/nature16967

ウイルス学:コロナウイルスのスパイク糖タンパク質三量体の低温電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer p.114

The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a pre-fusion coronavirus spike trimer from mouse hepatitis virus is presented; the structure reveals architectural similarities to paramyxovirus F proteins, suggesting that these fusion proteins may have evolved from a distant common ancestor.

doi: 10.1038/nature16988

ウイルス学:ヒトコロナウイルスのスパイクタンパク質の融合前の構造

Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein p.118

A 4.0 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the pre-fusion form of the trimeric spike from the human coronavirus HKU1 provides insight into how the spike protein mediates host-cell attachment and membrane fusion.

doi: 10.1038/nature17200

構造生物学:真核生物翻訳開始因子eIF2Bの結晶構造

Crystal structure of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B p.122

The crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B, providing a structural framework for the eIF2B-mediated mechanism of stress-induced translational control.

doi: 10.1038/nature16991

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