Volume 527 Number 7578



Defensive drives p.275

Researchers exploring ways to genetically alter wild populations are wise to air their plans.

doi: 10.1038/527275b


Research for all p.275

Numbers on racial bias in research grants awarded by the US National Institutes of Health show that science has more to learn about inclusiveness.

doi: 10.1038/527275a


Dope rules p.276

Science is beside the point when an entrenched culture in a sport supports scoundrels.

doi: 10.1038/527276a



Long-sought biological compass discovered p.283

Protein complex offers explanation for how animals sense Earth's magnetic pull.

doi: 10.1038/527283a


Freefall space cubes are test for gravitational wave spotter p.284

Europe’s long-awaited LISA Pathfinder spacecraft has two metal cubes at its heart, which it will attempt to isolate from every force except for gravity.

doi: 10.1038/527284a


Racial bias continues to haunt NIH grants p.286

Minorities still less likely to win biomedical funding.

doi: 10.1038/527286a


Wayward satellites repurposed to test general relativity p.286

Scientists will use wonky orbit to test Einstein’s theories.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18780


The exoplanet files p.288

What we know about alien worlds — and what’s coming next.

doi: 10.1038/527288a

News Features


The quantum source of space-time p.290


doi: 10.1038/527290a

News & Views


Imaging techniques: Extra dimension for bone analysis p.308


doi: 10.1038/527308a


Antibiotics: Homed to the hideout p.309


doi: 10.1038/nature15647


Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light p.310


doi: 10.1038/527310a


Evolution: On the crest of becoming vertebrate p.311


doi: 10.1038/nature15645


Cancer: Organ-seeking vesicles p.312


doi: 10.1038/nature15642


Rehabilitation: Boost for movement p.314


doi: 10.1038/527314a


Ecology: Ecosystem responses to climate extremes p.315


doi: 10.1038/527315a



Dpp spreading is required for medial but not for lateral wing disc growth p.317

The morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) has been implicated in both wing patterning and growth in fruitflies; here, a nanobody-based morphotrap approach has been developed that rules out a role for the Dpp gradient in regulating lateral wing growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15712


Novel antibody–antibiotic conjugate eliminates intracellular S. aureus p.323

Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, such as MRSA, are proving increasingly difficult to treat; here, one reason for this is confirmed to be the fact that S. aureus bacteria can reside in intracellular reservoirs where they are protected from antibiotics, but a new strategy—based on an antibody–antibiotic conjugate—can specifically target these reservoirs.

doi: 10.1038/nature16057


Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis p.329

Exosomes originating from lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells are preferentially incorporated by specific resident cells of the target organs, thus preparing the site for metastasis; the expression of distinct combinations of exosomal integrin proteins determines the exosomal targeting to each of the three organs, and blocking these integrins reduces organotropic exosome uptake by the target organs, thereby reducing the likelihood of organotropic metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15756


Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy p.336

This study has determined the electron cryomicroscopy structure of the mammalian type 1 InsP3 receptor in a ligand-free state at 4.7 Å resolution; although the central Ca2+-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, the unique architecture of the C-terminal domains of the tetrameric channel suggests that a distinctive allosteric mechanism underlies the activation of InsP3 gating.

doi: 10.1038/nature15249


天文学:LkCa 15の遷移円盤内にある降着を受けている原始惑星

Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition disk p.342

Transition disks are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation, with inner clearings explained by the influence of accreting planets, but attempts to observe directly accretion onto protoplanets have proven unsuccessful so far; here the authors detect infrared emission from multiple companions of the LkCa 15 system and Ha emission from the innermost (LkCa 15 b), showing hot (~10,000 K) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet.

doi: 10.1038/nature15761


Measurement of interaction between antiprotons p.345

The interaction between antiprotons, produced by colliding high-energy gold ions, is shown to be attractive, and two important parameters of this interaction are measured, namely the scattering length and the effective range.

doi: 10.1038/nature15724


Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography p.349

An imaging method that combines small-angle X-ray scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in macroscopic samples is introduced and demonstrated by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample.

doi: 10.1038/nature16056


Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography p.353

A small-angle X-ray scattering computed tomography method that reduces the amount of data that needs to be collected and analysed to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space of a three-dimensional sample in real space is demonstrated by measuring the orientation of collagen fibres within a human tooth.

doi: 10.1038/nature16060


Methane storage in flexible metal–organic frameworks with intrinsic thermal management p.357

Two flexible metal-organic frameworks are presented as solid adsorbents for methane that undergo reversible phase transitions at specific methane pressures, enabling greater storage capacities of usable methane than have been achieved previously, while also providing internal heat management of the system.

doi: 10.1038/nature15732


North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming p.362

The processes responsible for driving the expansion of the ocean's oxygen minimum zones remain uncertain; here sediment core data from the Gulf of Alaska suggest that reduced oxygen solubility was a result of ocean warming initiating the expansion of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone, leading to increased marine productivity and carbon export and, in turn, further reductions in dissolved oxygen levels.

doi: 10.1038/nature15753


The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration p.367

By quantifying the colouration of all approximately 6,000 species of passerine birds, certain life-history traits such as large body size and tropical distribution are found to increase ornamentation in both male and female birds, whereas cooperative breeding increases it in females only, and sexual selection diminishes it in females more than it increases it in males.

doi: 10.1038/nature15509


Migratory neuronal progenitors arise from the neural plate borders in tunicates p.371

Neuronal precursor cells in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis are shown to delaminate and undergo directed cell migration along either side of the neural tube before differentiating into bipolar neurons, suggesting that vertebrate neural-crest-derived sensory neurons have much deeper evolutionary roots.

doi: 10.1038/nature15758


Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing p.375

The morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) has been implicated in both wing patterning and growth in fruitflies; here, a CRISPR–Cas9 approach is used to rule out the Dpp gradient driving wing growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15730

がん:ASS1欠損腫瘍でのアスパラギン酸の転用がde novoピリミジン合成を促進する

Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis p.379

ASS1, a urea cycle enzyme, promotes cancer cell proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15529


DNA-dependent formation of transcription factor pairs alters their binding specificity p.384

A high-throughput analysis of DNA binding in over 9,000 interacting transcription factor pairs reveals that the interactions are often actively mediated by the DNA itself and the composite DNA sites recognized are different from the individual motifs of each transcription factor.

doi: 10.1038/nature15518


Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage p.389

At the initiation of DNA double-strand break repair, a number of ubiquitylation events occur; here, the RNF8 ubiquitin E3 ligase and the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme, UBC13, are shown to primarily modify H1-type linker histones, via a K63 linkage.

doi: 10.1038/nature15401


The inner workings of the hydrazine synthase multiprotein complex p.394

Hydrazine is an intermediate in the process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation which has a major role in the Earth’s nitrogen cycle; the crystal structure of a hydrazine synthase enzyme provides insights into the mechanism of hydrazine synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15517

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