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Editorials

古代のヒトは、火を使った調理が始まるよりはるかに前から、道具を巧みに使って肉を食べやすくしていたようだ。

Food processing p.139

A recreation of how early humans managed to eat a diet of meat hundreds of thousands of years before they had fire to cook it with, shows an ingenious use of tools to cut down on chewing time.

doi: 10.1038/531139a

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大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)で見つかった予想外のシグナルは、これまで想定されていなかった新しい粒子の手掛かりなのかもしれない。

Who ordered that? p.139

An unexpected data signal that could change everything has particle physicists salivating.

doi: 10.1038/531139b

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ゲノム編集のリスクや恩恵は、臨床医学をはるかに超えた幅広い分野に及ぶため、慎重な議論が必要だ。

Gene intelligence p.140

The risks and rewards of genome editing resonate beyond the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/531140a

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News

低コストで自作できるDIY実験装置の情報公開を進めようという動きが。

‘Open-hardware’ pioneers push for low-cost lab kit p.147

Conference aims to raise awareness of shared resources for building lab equipment.

Elizabeth Gibney

doi: 10.1038/531147a

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米国特許商標局が、CRISPR技術の特許の審査を開始。

How the US CRISPR patent probe will play out p.149

Decision could determine who profits from the gene-editing technique in future.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/531149a

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中国の重力波探査計画に2つの案が。

Chinese gravitational-wave hunt hits crunch time p.150

The pressure is on to choose between several proposals for space-based detectors.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/531150a

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統計的有意を示すP値の誤用に、統計学界が警鐘を。

Statisticians issue warning over misuse of P values p.151

Policy statement aims to halt missteps in the quest for certainty.

Monya Baker

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19503

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米国で、植物が気候変動などの人為的な活動に対してどのように適応したかの解明を目指す、大規模な種子バンク計画が。

Five million US seeds banked for resurrection experiment p.152

Project Baseline will monitor effects of climate change on plant evolution.

Daniel Cressey

doi: 10.1038/531152a

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コロンビアで、ジカウイルス感染に関連する先天性異常の症例が。

First Zika-linked birth defects detected in Colombia p.153

Cases may signal start of anticipated wave of birth defects in country hit hard by Zika virus.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19502

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News Features

どこもかしこもCRISPR

CRISPR everywhere p.155

A special issue explores what it means to be living in an age of gene editing.

doi: 10.1038/531155a

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CRISPRの波に乗る

CRISPR: gene editing is just the beginning p.156

The real power of the biological tool lies in exploring how genomes work.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/531156a

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CRISPR動物園

Welcome to the CRISPR zoo p.160

Birds and bees are just the beginning for a burgeoning technology.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/531160a

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News & Views

分子進化: 有性生殖は適応を加速させる

Molecular evolution: Sex accelerates adaptation p.176

An analysis confirms the long-standing theory that sex increases the rate of adaptive evolution by accelerating the speed at which beneficial mutations sweep through sexual, as opposed to asexual, populations. See Letter p.233

Matthew R. Goddard

doi: 10.1038/nature17304

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超伝導体: 量子情報の指数関数的増強

Superconductors: Exponential boost for quantum information p.177

Quantum computers will one day wildly outperform conventional machines. An experimental feat reveals a fundamental property of exotic superconductors that brings this quantum technology a step closer. See Letter p.206

Jason Alicea

doi: 10.1038/531177a

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植物科学: LUREは多数の受容体をおびき寄せる

Plant biology: LURE is bait for multiple receptors p.178

In flowering plants, sperm-containing pollen tubes are guided towards ovules by attractants from the female reproductive organ. Receptors for the attractant molecule AtLURE1 have now been found. See Letters p.241 & p.245

Alice Y. Cheung & Hen-Ming Wu

doi: 10.1038/531178a

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サステイナブルケミストリー: 二酸化炭素を仕事に就かせる

Sustainable chemistry: Putting carbon dioxide to work p.180

Carbon dioxide is an abundant resource, but difficult for industry to use effectively. A simple reaction might allow it to be used to make commercial products more sustainably than with current processes. See Letter p.215

Eric J. Beckman

doi: 10.1038/531180a

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生態学: 気候変動への植生の応答

Ecology: Vegetation's responses to climate variability p.181

Satellite data have allowed scientists to generate a quantitative model to assess the response rates of different ecosystems to climate variability. The index provides a tool for comparing regional sensitivity and resilience. See Letter p.229

Alfredo Huete

doi: 10.1038/nature17301

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神経発生: 再生スイッチとして働く一酸化窒素

Neurodevelopment: Regeneration switch is a gas p.182

Nitric oxide gas has now been found to act as a switch during developmental remodelling of axonal projections from neurons: high gas levels promote the degeneration of unwanted axons and low levels support subsequent regrowth.

Takeshi Awasaki & Kei Ito

doi: 10.1038/nature17308

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Articles

学習と記憶: 不動状態および睡眠中に空間符号化を行う海馬神経ネットワーク

A hippocampal network for spatial coding during immobility and sleep p.185

In the mammalian navigational system, neurons have been identified in the CA2 region of the hippocampus that keep track of position when an animal is not moving.

Kenneth Kay, Marielena Sosa, Jason E. Chung, Mattias P. Karlsson, Margaret C. Larkin & Loren M. Frank

doi: 10.1038/nature17144

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細胞生物学: RQC装置の障害はタンパク質凝集とタンパク質毒性ストレスを引き起こす

Failure of RQC machinery causes protein aggregation and proteotoxic stress p.191

Defects in the ribosome quality control (RQC) complex, which clears proteins that stalled during translation, can cause neurodegeneration; here it is shown that in RQC-defective cells a peptide tail added by the RQC subunit 2 to stalled polypeptides promotes their aggregation and the sequestration of chaperones in these aggregates, affecting normal protein quality control processes.

Young-Jun Choe, Sae-Hun Park, Timm Hassemer, Roman Körner, Lisa Vincenz-Donnelly, Manajit Hayer-Hartl & F. Ulrich Hartl

doi: 10.1038/nature16973

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構造生物学: シロイヌナズナの電位依存性2孔型チャネルTPC1の構造

Structure of the voltage-gated two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.196

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana reveals the structure and the mechanism of voltage gating of this class of ubiquitous cation-selective ion channels.

Jiangtao Guo, Weizhong Zeng, Qingfeng Chen, Changkeun Lee, Liping Chen, Yi Yang, Chunlei Cang, Dejian Ren & Youxing Jiang

doi: 10.1038/nature16446

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Letters

宇宙物理学: 反復する高速電波バースト

A repeating fast radio burst p.202

Observations of repeated fast radio bursts, having dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with those of FRB 121102, show that the signals do not originate in a single cataclysmic event and may come from a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

L. G. Spitler, P. Scholz, J. W. T. Hessels, S. Bogdanov, A. Brazier, F. Camilo, S. Chatterjee, J. M. Cordes, F. Crawford, J. Deneva + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17168

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超伝導体: マヨラナ島ゼロモードの指数関数的保護

Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands p.206

The splitting of zero-energy Majorana modes in a tunnel-coupled InAs nanowire with epitaxial aluminium is exponentially suppressed as the wire length is increased, resulting in protection of these modes; this result helps to establish the robust presence of Majorana modes and quantifies exponential protection in nanowire devices.

S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup & C. M. Marcus

doi: 10.1038/nature17162

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超伝導体: 銅酸化物超伝導体の擬ギャップ臨界点におけるキャリア密度の変化

Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor p.210

Low-temperature measurements of the Hall effect in cuprate materials in which superconductivity is suppressed by high magnetic fields show that the pseudogap is not related to the charge ordering that has been seen at intermediate doping levels, but is instead linked to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at low doping.

S. Badoux, W. Tabis, F. Laliberté, G. Grissonnanche, B. Vignolle, D. Vignolles, J. Béard, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, R. Liang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16983

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有機化学: 炭酸塩で促進されるC–Hカルボキシル化による二酸化炭素利用

Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C–H carboxylation p.215

Molten salts at intermediate temperatures enable efficient carbonate-promoted carboxylation of very weakly acidic C–H bonds, revealing a new way to transform inedible biomass and carbon dioxide into valuable feedstock chemicals.

Aanindeeta Banerjee, Graham R. Dick, Tatsuhiko Yoshino & Matthew W. Kanan

doi: 10.1038/nature17185

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有機化学: パラジウムに触媒される脂環式アミンの渡環C–H官能基化

Palladium-catalysed transannular C–H functionalization of alicyclic amines p.220

An approach to selectively manipulate the C–H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen is demonstrated by the synthesis of new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline, a drug used to treat nicotine addiction.

Joseph J. Topczewski, Pablo J. Cabrera, Noam I. Saper & Melanie S. Sanford

doi: 10.1038/nature16957

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生物地球化学: 大気への温室効果ガスの正味の供給源としての陸上生物圏

The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere p.225

The net balance of terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gases produced as a result of human activities and the climatic impact of this balance are uncertain; here the net cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, on the planetary energy budget from 2001 to 2010 is a warming of the planet.

Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Philippe Ciais, Anna M. Michalak, Josep G. Canadell, Eri Saikawa, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Kevin R. Gurney, Stephen Sitch, Bowen Zhang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16946

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気候変動生態学: 気候変動に対する全球の陸上生態系の感受性

Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability p.229

Using satellite data and a novel analytical approach, a new index of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability is developed, revealing areas of high sensitivity that include tundra, boreal forest, tropical forest and temperate grasslands.

Alistair W. R. Seddon, Marc Macias-Fauria, Peter R. Long, David Benz & Kathy J. Willis

doi: 10.1038/nature16986

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分子進化学: 有性生殖は分子進化の動態を変化させることで適応を加速させる

Sex speeds adaptation by altering the dynamics of molecular evolution p.233

In a comparison between replicate sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sexual reproduction increases fitness by reducing clonal interference and alters the type of mutations that get fixed by natural selection.

Michael J. McDonald, Daniel P. Rice & Michael M. Desai

doi: 10.1038/nature17143

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再生: MARCKS様タンパク質はアホロートルにおける外肢再生の開始分子である

MARCKS-like protein is an initiating molecule in axolotl appendage regeneration p.237

The salamander, or axolotl, is well known to be able to regenerate missing body parts, but the signals that drive the initial proliferative response were unclear; now, a secreted protein has been identified that induces the initial cell cycle response after injury.

Takuji Sugiura, Heng Wang, Rico Barsacchi, Andras Simon & Elly M. Tanaka

doi: 10.1038/nature16974

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植物科学: 植物での雌性誘引物質の雄による感知は受容体であるヘテロ複合体を介して起こる

A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female attractants in plants p.241

A male cell-surface receptor-like kinase that responds to the female chemoattractant LURE1 on the pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana is identified; LURE1 triggers dimerization of the receptor components and activation of the kinase activity, and the transformation of a component of the A. thaliana receptor to the Capsella rubella species partially breaks down the reproductive isolation barrier.

Tong Wang, Liang Liang, Yong Xue, Peng-Fei Jia, Wei Chen, Meng-Xia Zhang, Ying-Chun Wang, Hong-Ju Li & Wei-Cai Yang

doi: 10.1038/nature16975

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植物科学: シロイヌナズナでは花粉管先端に局在する受容体が花粉管伸長およびLUREの感知を制御する

Tip-localized receptors control pollen tube growth and LURE sensing in Arabidopsis p.245

Pollen-specific receptor-like kinase 6 (PRK6), which signals through the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors ROPGEFs, is required for sensing of the LURE1 attractant peptide in Arabidopsis thaliana, and functions together with other PRK family kinases; when introduced into the pollen tubes of the related species Capsella rubella, PRK6 could confer responsiveness to AtLURE1.

Hidenori Takeuchi & Tetsuya Higashiyama

doi: 10.1038/nature17413

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微生物学: MIMIVIREはヴィロファージへの耐性を付与するミミウイルスの防御系である

MIMIVIRE is a defence system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage p.249

MIMIVIRE is a novel nucleic-acid-based immune system against virophage infection in the giant virus mimivirus.

Anthony Levasseur, Meriem Bekliz, Eric Chabrière, Pierre Pontarotti, Bernard La Scola & Didier Raoult

doi: 10.1038/nature17146

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がん: NAFLDはCD4+ Tリンパ球の選択的な消失を引き起こして肝細胞がんの発生を促進する

NAFLD causes selective CD4+ T lymphocyte loss and promotes hepatocarcinogenesis p.253

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is shown to promote hepatocellular carcinoma through the generation of linoleic acid, disruption of mitochondrial function and selective loss of CD4+ T cells, leading to impaired anti-tumour immunity.

Chi Ma, Aparna H. Kesarwala, Tobias Eggert, José Medina-Echeverz, David E. Kleiner, Ping Jin, David F. Stroncek, Masaki Terabe, Veena Kapoor, Mei ElGindi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16969

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構造生物学: シロイヌナズナの2孔型チャネルTPC1の構造、阻害および調節

Structure, inhibition and regulation of two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.258

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana is reported, revealing the mechanisms of ion permeation, inhibition channel activation, and location of regulatory sites and voltage-sensing domains.

Alexander F. Kintzer & Robert M. Stroud

doi: 10.1038/nature17194

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