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Editorials

NIHがデータ共有指針の改訂に対する意見を求めており、科学者は早急かつ積極的に反応すべきだ。

Data deadline p.165

Time is running out to comment on the NIH’s plan for sharing genomic data.

doi: 10.1038/503165b

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アフリカでのマラリアとHIV阻止を目指す運動は、多くの人々を救う可能性があるが、長期的効果の検証を忘れてはならない。

Precautionary measures p.165

Major African campaigns targeting malaria and HIV could help millions, but key concerns over their long-term effects should not be forgotten.

doi: 10.1038/503165a

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覚醒剤、麻薬、タバコなど、薬物に関する政策、規制は、先入観ではなく、証拠に基づいて決めるべきだ。

Keep asking p.166

Prejudice, not evidence, is too often the basis for government drug policies.

doi: 10.1038/503166a

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News

NIHの大規模プロジェクトに、予算削減の大きな打撃が。

Large NIH projects cut p.173

Budget woes force institutes to scrutinize expensive, non-competitive programmes.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/503173a

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新しい条約合意への道筋を整えるため、ワルシャワで国連気候変動枠組会議が。

Warsaw talks to thrash out UN climate roadmap p.174

Costs of reducing emissions may be flashpoints in path towards 2015 Paris treaty.

Jeff Tollefson

doi: 10.1038/503174a

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大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)の後継となる、より大型の加速器に、物理学者たちが夢を。

Physicists plan to build a bigger LHC p.177

Accelerator ring would be 100 kilometres around and run at seven times the energy of the Large Hadron Collider.

Eugenie Samuel Reich

doi: 10.1038/503177a

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火星の大気を調査するNASAの探査機MAVENが、間もなく打ち上げへ。

Mars mission set for launch p.178

NASA’s MAVEN orbiter aims to unravel the mystery of the red planet’s missing atmosphere.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/503178a

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社会科学者たちから、全米科学財団(NSF)からの助成に新たな制約条件が加えられたことに、強い反発が。

Social scientists hit back at grant rules p.179

Researchers seek to fend off restrictions on National Science Foundation grant programmes.

Sarah Zhang

doi: 10.1038/503179a

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生命科学分野の新たなプレプリントサーバーbioRχiv.orgが、運用開始へ。

Preprints come to life p.180

A dedicated website for sharing biology papers before peer review leaves journals divided.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/503180a

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News Features

エイズ予防: アフリカの割礼推進策

AIDS prevention: Africa’s circumcision challenge p.182

To combat the spread of HIV, health officials plan to circumcise 20 million men in Africa, but some have concerns about the aftermath.

Catherine de Lange

doi: 10.1038/503182a

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マラリア: 耐性との競争

Malaria: A race against resistance p.186

Several African nations could strike a major blow against malaria by sacrificing the efficacy of some older drugs. Can they make it work?

Amy Maxmen

doi: 10.1038/503186a

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News & Views

応用物理学: カスケードレーザーのランダムウォーク

Applied physics: A cascade laser's random walk p.200

A random array of holes etched in a semiconductor structure, consisting of a periodic series of thin layers, has been demonstrated that emits mid-infrared laser radiation. The device could have sensing and imaging applications.

Hui Cao & Stafford W. Sheehan

doi: 10.1038/503200a

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生化学: スプライシング機械中の金属が持つ役割は幻だった

Biochemistry: Metal ghosts in the splicing machine p.201

Chemical analysis of the spliceosome's active site reveals that it is the RNA components of this enzyme complex that coordinate the catalytic metal ions responsible for production of a spliced messenger RNA. See Article p.229

Scott A. Strobel

doi: 10.1038/nature12705

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太陽系: ロシア版「スカイフォール」

Solar System: Russian skyfall p.202

The recent entry of a 20-metre-wide celestial rock into Earth's atmosphere offered both a spectacular show and a source of invaluable data that advance our understanding of high-velocity impacts. See Letters p.235 & p.238

Natalia Artemieva

doi: 10.1038/503202a

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幹細胞: バックアップの役割を果たす分化細胞

Stem cells: Differentiated cells in a back-up role p.204

Two independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act as adult stem cells, generating various cell types of the tissues, including a pool of stem cells. See Article p.218

Tushar J. Desai & Mark A. Krasnow

doi: 10.1038/nature12706

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量子物理学: 単一スピンのための正しい環境

Quantum physics: The right ambience for a single spin p.205

Long-lived single electron spins are crucial for quantum computation and for understanding spin dynamics. A remarkably long lifetime — of the order of minutes — has now been obtained for a solid-state system. See Letter p.242

Michael E. Flatté

doi: 10.1038/503205a

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生物多様性: 生態的な債務超過状態

Biodiversity: The ecological deficit p.206

The almost complete extinction of small mammals in forest islands within 25 years of the construction of a reservoir that fragmented the habitat provides a striking example of delayed biodiversity loss.

Andrew Gonzalez

doi: 10.1038/503206a

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HIV: 治癒を目指す治療を進歩させる抗体療法

HIV: Antibodies advance the search for a cure p.207

Efforts to make a prophylactic HIV vaccine have identified monoclonal antibodies that potently suppress viral replication. Studies in monkeys show that these reagents effectively treat HIV infection. See Article p.224 & Letter p.277

Louis J. Picker & Steven G. Deeks

doi: 10.1038/nature12703

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Review

物理学: フォノニクスにおける音と熱の革命

Sound and heat revolutions in phononics p.209

The phonon is the physical particle responsible for the transmission of sound and heat; controlling the properties of phonons in materials could trigger many advances, which are reviewed here.

Martin Maldovan

doi: 10.1038/nature12608

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Articles

細胞: 運命拘束された上皮細胞のin vivoでの幹細胞への脱分化

Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo p.218

Using in vivo lineage tracing in mice and sorted cells in culture, the ability of stably committed cells to dedifferentiate into basal stem cells in the mouse trachea is investigated: the findings suggest that the dedifferentiation of committed cell types into stem cells may contribute generally to regeneration in higher vertebrates in different organ and injury contexts.

Purushothama Rao Tata, Hongmei Mou, Ana Pardo-Saganta, Rui Zhao, Mythili Prabhu, Brandon M. Law, Vladimir Vinarsky, Josalyn L. Cho, Sylvie Breton, Amar Sahay + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12777

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医学: 強力なHIV-1特異的中和モノクローナル抗体のSHIV感染アカゲザルでの治療効果

Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys p.224

Treatment of SHIV-infected monkeys with potent broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies resulted in rapid control of viral replication in both peripheral blood and tissues; viral rebound was linked to decreasing antibody concentrations and not the generation of escape mutations, and setpoint viral load following viral rebound remained lower than the initial baseline viral load.

Dan H. Barouch, James B. Whitney, Brian Moldt, Florian Klein, Thiago Y. Oliveira, Jinyan Liu, Kathryn E. Stephenson, Hui-Wen Chang, Karthik Shekhar, Sanjana Gupta + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12744

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生化学: RNAは核内mRNA前駆体のスプライシングを触媒する

RNA catalyses nuclear pre-mRNA splicing p.229

The spliceosome is shown to catalyse splicing through the RNA and not the protein components of the spliceosome; pre-messenger RNA splicing requires U6 snRNA acting by a mechanism similar to that used by group II self-splicing introns.

Sebastian M. Fica, Nicole Tuttle, Thaddeus Novak, Nan-Sheng Li, Jun Lu, Prakash Koodathingal, Qing Dai, Jonathan P. Staley & Joseph A. Piccirilli

doi: 10.1038/nature12734

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Letters

宇宙: チェリャビンスク小惑星の衝突体の軌跡、構造と起源

The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor p.235

Analysis of video records of the Chelyabinsk superbolide of 15 February 2013 show that its orbit was sufficiently similar to the orbit of asteroid 86039 (1999 NC43) to suggest that the two were once part of the same object.

Jiří Borovička, Pavel Spurný, Peter Brown, Paul Wiegert, Pavel Kalenda, David Clark & Lukáš Shrbený

doi: 10.1038/nature12671

日本語要約 | Full Text |PDF

宇宙: チェリャビンスク上空の500キロトンの空中爆発と小さな衝突天体の高まる危険

A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors p.238

The damage caused by the asteroid 17–20 metres in diameter that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013 is estimated here to have an energy equivalent to about 500 kilotons of TNT.

P. G. Brown, J. D. Assink, L. Astiz, R. Blaauw, M. B. Boslough, J. Borovička, N. Brachet, D. Brown, M. Campbell-Brown, L. Ceranna + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12741

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物理学: 対称性によるホルミウム単原子の磁気モーメントの安定化

Stabilizing the magnetic moment of single holmium atoms by symmetry p.242

Single magnetic atoms on non-magnetic surfaces have magnetic moments that are usually destabilized within a microsecond, too speedily to be useful, but here the magnetic moments of single holmium atoms on a highly conductive metallic substrate can reach lifetimes of the order of minutes.

Toshio Miyamachi, Tobias Schuh, Tobias Märkl, Christopher Bresch, Timofey Balashov, Alexander Stöhr, Christian Karlewski, Stephan André, Michael Marthaler, Martin Hoffmann + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12759

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材料: 軟質ナノパッチ粒子の誘導された階層的共集合

Guided hierarchical co-assembly of soft patchy nanoparticles p.247

Different polymers can be used in combination to produce coexisting nanoparticles of different symmetry and tailored to co-assemble into well-ordered binary and ternary hierarchical structures.

André H. Gröschel, Andreas Walther, Tina I. Löbling, Felix H. Schacher, Holger Schmalz & Axel H. E. Müller

doi: 10.1038/nature12610

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地球: チェサピーク湾クレーターから得られた白亜紀初期海水の高塩分濃度の証拠

Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater p.252

Chemical, isotopic and physical evidence indicate that some of the groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic sea water, probably 100–145 million years old, with an average salinity of about 70‰, which is twice that of modern sea water.

Ward E. Sanford, Michael W. Doughten, Tyler B. Coplen, Andrew G. Hunt & Thomas D. Bullen

doi: 10.1038/nature12714

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古生物学: 既知のもので最古の完全変態類昆虫

The earliest known holometabolous insects p.257

Fossils of four insects and one larva from the Carboniferous Pennsylvanian epoch are described; these are very small relative to other known Palaeozoic-era insects, and reveal a previously unknown diversity of early eumetabolan insects, although the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period.

André Nel, Patrick Roques, Patricia Nel, Alexander A. Prokin, Thierry Bourgoin, Jakub Prokop, Jacek Szwedo, Dany Azar, Laure Desutter-Grandcolas, Torsten Wappler + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12629

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神経科学: ショウジョウバエ中心複合体での特徴検出と方位同調性

Feature detection and orientation tuning in the Drosophila central complex p.262

Two-photon calcium imaging experiments reveal that ring neurons in the Drosophila central complex represent visual features and show direction-selective orientation tuning, resembling simple cells in mammalian primary visual cortex; future fly studies may enhance our understanding of circuit computations underlying visually guided action selection.

Johannes D. Seelig & Vivek Jayaraman

doi: 10.1038/nature12601

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神経科学: SHANK3とIGF1は22q13欠失症候群患者由来のニューロンにおけるシナプス異常を回復させる

SHANK3 and IGF1 restore synaptic deficits in neurons from 22q13 deletion syndrome patients p.267

Deletions of chromosome 22q13.3 cause Phelan–McDermid syndrome (PMDS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with autism; here induced pluripotent stem cells from PMDS patients with autism are used to produce neurons, they are shown to have reduced SHANK3 expression and a defect in excitatory synaptic transmission which can be restored either by increasing SHANK3 or with insulin-like growth factor 1.

Aleksandr Shcheglovitov, Olesya Shcheglovitova, Masayuki Yazawa, Thomas Portmann, Rui Shu, Vittorio Sebastiano, Anna Krawisz, Wendy Froehlich, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Joachim F. Hallmayer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12618

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免疫学: 腸の炎症の起点となるパネート細胞

Paneth cells as a site of origin for intestinal inflammation p.272

Variation in ATG16L1, a protein involved in autophagy, confers risk for Crohn’s disease, but mice with hypomorphic ATG16L1 activity do not develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation; this study shows that autophagy compensates for endoplasmic reticulum stress — common in inflammatory bowel disease epithelium — specifically in Paneth cells, with Crohn’s-disease-like inflammation of the ileum originating from this cell type when both pathways are compromised.

Timon E. Adolph, Michal F. Tomczak, Lukas Niederreiter, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Janne Böck, Eduardo Martinez-Naves, Jonathan N. Glickman, Markus Tschurtschenthaler, John Hartwig, Shuhei Hosomi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12599

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医学: SHIVに慢性感染したマカクザルのウイルス血症の抗体を使った免疫療法による抑制

Antibody-mediated immunotherapy of macaques chronically infected with SHIV suppresses viraemia p.277

A new generation of broad and potent anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies has recently been isolated; co-administration of two such antibodies is shown here to result in rapid and potent suppression of plasma viraemia in five chronically SHIV-infected macaques that lasts for several weeks.

Masashi Shingai, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Florian Klein, Hugo Mouquet, Olivia K. Donau, Ronald Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Michael Seaman, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey D. Lifson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12746

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細胞生物学: Arp2/3複合体に対する阻害性シグナル伝達は細胞遊走の方向性を制御する

Inhibitory signalling to the Arp2/3 complex steers cell migration p.281

A new protein, Arpin, is identified that inhibits the Arp2/3 complex and controls cell migration by decreasing cell speed and the directional persistence of migration; this inhibitory circuit is under the control of the small GTPase Rac1, and Arpin depletion causes faster lamellipodia protrusion and increased cell migration.

Irene Dang, Roman Gorelik, Carla Sousa-Blin, Emmanuel Derivery, Christophe Guérin, Joern Linkner, Maria Nemethova, Julien G. Dumortier, Florence A. Giger, Tamara A. Chipysheva + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12611

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発生生物学: 自己形成したケモカイン勾配を介して起こる方向性を持った組織移動

Directional tissue migration through a self-generated chemokine gradient p.285

It is widely accepted that migrating cells and tissues navigate along pre-patterned chemoattractant gradients; here it is shown that migrating tissues can also determine their own direction by generating local gradients of chemokine activity, via polarized receptor-mediated internalization, that are sufficient to ensure robust collective migration.

Erika Donà, Joseph D. Barry, Guillaume Valentin, Charlotte Quirin, Anton Khmelinskii, Andreas Kunze, Sevi Durdu, Lionel R. Newton, Ana Fernandez-Minan, Wolfgang Huber + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12635

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分子生物学: ヒト細胞における三次元クロマチンインタラクトームの高分解能マップ

A high-resolution map of the three-dimensional chromatin interactome in human cells p.290

A novel approach to analyse high-depth Hi-C data provides a comprehensive chromatin interaction map at approximately 5–10 kb resolution in human fibroblasts; this reveals that TNF-α-responsive enhancers are already in contact with target promoters before signalling and that this chromatin looping is a strong predictor of gene induction.

Fulai Jin, Yan Li, Jesse R. Dixon, Siddarth Selvaraj, Zhen Ye, Ah Young Lee, Chia-An Yen, Anthony D. Schmitt, Celso A. Espinoza & Bing Ren

doi: 10.1038/nature12644

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薬理学: アロステリック薬によるGタンパク質共役型受容体調節の構造基盤

Structural basis for modulation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by allosteric drugs p.295

Binding modes and molecular mechanisms of several allosteric modulators of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor are revealed using atomic-level simulations and validated by the rational design of a modulator with substantially altered effects.

Ron O. Dror, Hillary F. Green, Celine Valant, David W. Borhani, James R. Valcourt, Albert C. Pan, Daniel H. Arlow, Meritxell Canals, J. Robert Lane, Raphaël Rahmani + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature12595

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