Data deadline p.165
Time is running out to comment on the NIH’s plan for sharing genomic data.
Time is running out to comment on the NIH’s plan for sharing genomic data.
Major African campaigns targeting malaria and HIV could help millions, but key concerns over their long-term effects should not be forgotten.
Prejudice, not evidence, is too often the basis for government drug policies.
Budget woes force institutes to scrutinize expensive, non-competitive programmes.
Costs of reducing emissions may be flashpoints in path towards 2015 Paris treaty.
Accelerator ring would be 100 kilometres around and run at seven times the energy of the Large Hadron Collider.
NASA’s MAVEN orbiter aims to unravel the mystery of the red planet’s missing atmosphere.
Researchers seek to fend off restrictions on National Science Foundation grant programmes.
A dedicated website for sharing biology papers before peer review leaves journals divided.
To combat the spread of HIV, health officials plan to circumcise 20 million men in Africa, but some have concerns about the aftermath.
Several African nations could strike a major blow against malaria by sacrificing the efficacy of some older drugs. Can they make it work?
A random array of holes etched in a semiconductor structure, consisting of a periodic series of thin layers, has been demonstrated that emits mid-infrared laser radiation. The device could have sensing and imaging applications.
Chemical analysis of the spliceosome's active site reveals that it is the RNA components of this enzyme complex that coordinate the catalytic metal ions responsible for production of a spliced messenger RNA. See Article p.229
The recent entry of a 20-metre-wide celestial rock into Earth's atmosphere offered both a spectacular show and a source of invaluable data that advance our understanding of high-velocity impacts. See Letters p.235 & p.238
Two independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act as adult stem cells, generating various cell types of the tissues, including a pool of stem cells. See Article p.218
Long-lived single electron spins are crucial for quantum computation and for understanding spin dynamics. A remarkably long lifetime — of the order of minutes — has now been obtained for a solid-state system. See Letter p.242
The almost complete extinction of small mammals in forest islands within 25 years of the construction of a reservoir that fragmented the habitat provides a striking example of delayed biodiversity loss.
Efforts to make a prophylactic HIV vaccine have identified monoclonal antibodies that potently suppress viral replication. Studies in monkeys show that these reagents effectively treat HIV infection. See Article p.224 & Letter p.277
The phonon is the physical particle responsible for the transmission of sound and heat; controlling the properties of phonons in materials could trigger many advances, which are reviewed here.
Using in vivo lineage tracing in mice and sorted cells in culture, the ability of stably committed cells to dedifferentiate into basal stem cells in the mouse trachea is investigated: the findings suggest that the dedifferentiation of committed cell types into stem cells may contribute generally to regeneration in higher vertebrates in different organ and injury contexts.
Treatment of SHIV-infected monkeys with potent broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies resulted in rapid control of viral replication in both peripheral blood and tissues; viral rebound was linked to decreasing antibody concentrations and not the generation of escape mutations, and setpoint viral load following viral rebound remained lower than the initial baseline viral load.
The spliceosome is shown to catalyse splicing through the RNA and not the protein components of the spliceosome; pre-messenger RNA splicing requires U6 snRNA acting by a mechanism similar to that used by group II self-splicing introns.
Analysis of video records of the Chelyabinsk superbolide of 15 February 2013 show that its orbit was sufficiently similar to the orbit of asteroid 86039 (1999 NC43) to suggest that the two were once part of the same object.
The damage caused by the asteroid 17–20 metres in diameter that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013 is estimated here to have an energy equivalent to about 500 kilotons of TNT.
Single magnetic atoms on non-magnetic surfaces have magnetic moments that are usually destabilized within a microsecond, too speedily to be useful, but here the magnetic moments of single holmium atoms on a highly conductive metallic substrate can reach lifetimes of the order of minutes.
Different polymers can be used in combination to produce coexisting nanoparticles of different symmetry and tailored to co-assemble into well-ordered binary and ternary hierarchical structures.
Chemical, isotopic and physical evidence indicate that some of the groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic sea water, probably 100–145 million years old, with an average salinity of about 70‰, which is twice that of modern sea water.
Fossils of four insects and one larva from the Carboniferous Pennsylvanian epoch are described; these are very small relative to other known Palaeozoic-era insects, and reveal a previously unknown diversity of early eumetabolan insects, although the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period.
Two-photon calcium imaging experiments reveal that ring neurons in the Drosophila central complex represent visual features and show direction-selective orientation tuning, resembling simple cells in mammalian primary visual cortex; future fly studies may enhance our understanding of circuit computations underlying visually guided action selection.
Deletions of chromosome 22q13.3 cause Phelan–McDermid syndrome (PMDS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with autism; here induced pluripotent stem cells from PMDS patients with autism are used to produce neurons, they are shown to have reduced SHANK3 expression and a defect in excitatory synaptic transmission which can be restored either by increasing SHANK3 or with insulin-like growth factor 1.
Variation in ATG16L1, a protein involved in autophagy, confers risk for Crohn’s disease, but mice with hypomorphic ATG16L1 activity do not develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation; this study shows that autophagy compensates for endoplasmic reticulum stress — common in inflammatory bowel disease epithelium — specifically in Paneth cells, with Crohn’s-disease-like inflammation of the ileum originating from this cell type when both pathways are compromised.
A new generation of broad and potent anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies has recently been isolated; co-administration of two such antibodies is shown here to result in rapid and potent suppression of plasma viraemia in five chronically SHIV-infected macaques that lasts for several weeks.
A new protein, Arpin, is identified that inhibits the Arp2/3 complex and controls cell migration by decreasing cell speed and the directional persistence of migration; this inhibitory circuit is under the control of the small GTPase Rac1, and Arpin depletion causes faster lamellipodia protrusion and increased cell migration.
It is widely accepted that migrating cells and tissues navigate along pre-patterned chemoattractant gradients; here it is shown that migrating tissues can also determine their own direction by generating local gradients of chemokine activity, via polarized receptor-mediated internalization, that are sufficient to ensure robust collective migration.
A novel approach to analyse high-depth Hi-C data provides a comprehensive chromatin interaction map at approximately 5–10 kb resolution in human fibroblasts; this reveals that TNF-α-responsive enhancers are already in contact with target promoters before signalling and that this chromatin looping is a strong predictor of gene induction.
Binding modes and molecular mechanisms of several allosteric modulators of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor are revealed using atomic-level simulations and validated by the rational design of a modulator with substantially altered effects.