Loss of net neutrality could harm research p.147

Moves to create a multi-speed Internet could push science into the slow lane.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07842-0

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Bureaucratic drag dents Japan’s nuclear science p.147

Japan needs a better way to assess whether research reactors are safe to re-open.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08464-2

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How to avoid glib interdisciplinarity p.148

To make progress on the grand challenges, authors, reviewers and editors must take the time to respect each others’ expertise and blind spots.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08465-1

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Nine researchers sue University of Rochester over sexual-harassment allegations p.155

Lawsuit alleges that the institution mishandled complaints about cognitive scientist Florian Jaeger.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08235-z

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Tasmanian tiger genome offers clues to its extinction p.156

Geneticists analyse DNA from preserved pup, more than 80 years after the last of its kind died.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08368-1

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Acupuncture in cancer study reignites debate about controversial technique p.157

Large study suggests acupuncture could help women stick with unpleasant cancer treatments.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08309-y

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US graduate students in uproar over proposed tax hike p.157

Worries over the cost of an education spill over into protests.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07879-1

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Argentinian geoscientist faces criminal charges over glacier survey p.158

Government researcher Ricardo Villalba stands accused of shaping a study to benefit mining interests.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08236-y

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News Features

出版: 引用されない科学

The science that’s never been cited p.162


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08404-0

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News & Views

発生生物学: 抑制されている初期胚

Developmental biology: Early embryos kept in check p.178


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07436-w

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天体物理学: 間欠的な星の共食い

Astrophysics: Stellar cannibalism in fits and starts p.179


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08286-2

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血管生物学: オメガ3脂肪酸の負の側面

Vascular biology: A dark side to omega-3 fatty acids p.180


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07678-8

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加齢: ポリメラーゼIIIによる長寿

Ageing: Longer life through an odd Pol enzyme p.182


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07435-x

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古氷河学: 温暖な気候における南極氷床のダイナミクス

Palaeoglaciology: Antarctic ice dynamics in warm climates p.183


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08285-3

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感染: ウイルスが長鎖ノンコーディングを乗っ取る

Infection: Viruses hijack a long non-coding RNA p.184


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07692-w

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細胞生物学: ミトコンドリアのタンパク質恒常性を高めることでアミロイドβのタンパク質毒性が低下する

Enhancing mitochondrial proteostasis reduces amyloid-β proteotoxicity p.187

Amyloid-β peptide proteopathies disrupt mitochondria, and restoring mitochondrial proteostasis reduces protein aggregation in animal models of amyloid-β disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25143

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

創薬: アルコール依存症治療薬ジスルフィラムはp97セグレガーゼアダプターNPL4を介してがんを標的化する

Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4 p.194

Amyloid-β peptide proteopathies disrupt mitochondria, and restoring mitochondrial proteostasis reduces protein aggregation in animal models of amyloid-β disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25016

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構造生物学: ヒトTRPM4チャネルのクライオ電子顕微鏡構造

Electron cryo-microscopy structure of a human TRPM4 channel p.200

The structure of the Ca2+-activated, non-selective ion channel TRPM4 bound to the agonist Ca2+ and a modulator decavanadate, solved using electron cryo-microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature24674

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構造生物学: カルシウム活性化型陽イオン非選択性チャネルTRPM4の構造

Structures of the calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel TRPM4 p.205

Electron cryo-microscopy structures of mouse TRPM4, a calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel, in the apo and ATP-bound states.

doi: 10.1038/nature24997

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宇宙物理学: 降着を受けている「非磁性」の白色矮星における磁気的にゲーティングされる降着現象

Magnetically gated accretion in an accreting ‘non-magnetic’ white dwarf p.210

A weak magnetic field regulates magnetically gated accretion of gas from a companion star onto the white dwarf in the binary system MV Lyrae, previously labelled as a ‘non-magnetic’ system.

doi: 10.1038/nature24653

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生体エネルギー学: デンキウナギに着想を得た、積層されたヒドロゲルでできた柔らかい電源

An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels p.214

Miniature hydrogel compartments in scalable stacked and folded geometries were used to prepare a contact-activated artificial electric organ.

doi: 10.1038/nature24670

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材料科学: 力の印加によって説明される、細胞によるリガンドの空間センシング

Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells p.219

The formation of cellular adhesion complexes is important in normal and pathological cell activity, and is determined by the force imposed by the combined effect of the distribution of extracellular matrix molecules and substrate rigidity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24662

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古氷河学: 東南極氷床の始まりと長期的不安定性

Initiation and long-term instability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet p.225

Geophysical and geological data reveal increased ice-sheet variability and surface meltwater—possibly analogous to future conditions—offshore of the Aurora subglacial basin of East Antarctica during warm climate intervals of the past 50 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature25026

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生物地球化学: 氾濫原の樹木からの大量放出によってアマゾンにおけるメタン収支が完結する

Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget p.230

Methane fluxes from the stems of Amazonian floodplain trees indicate that the escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of methane emissions in the Amazon basin.

doi: 10.1038/nature24639

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地球科学: 流紋岩マグマの流動化と噴火様式を支配する組成上の転換点

A compositional tipping point governing the mobilization and eruption style of rhyolitic magma p.235

Measurements of the composition-dependent viscosity of rhyolitic magma reveal a tipping point that changes the physical properties of the melt and controls the transition between effusive and explosive eruptions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24488

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発生生物学: 多能性状態の移行がマウスおよびヒトの胚での形態形成を調整する

Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos p.239

Exit of epiblasts from an unrestricted naive pluripotent state is required for epithelialization and generation of the pro-amniotic cavity in mouse embryos and for amniotic cavity formation in human embryos and human embryonic stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24675

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微生物学: マイクロバイオーム規模の関連の域を超え原因微生物の特定へ

Moving beyond microbiome-wide associations to causal microbe identification p.244

Triangulation of microbe–phenotype relationships is an effective method for reducing the noise inherent in microbiota studies and enabling identification of causal microbes of disease, which may be applicable to human microbiome studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature25019

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血管生物学: 可溶性エポキシドヒドロラーゼの阻害は糖尿病性網膜症を防止する

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents diabetic retinopathy p.248

A product of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme, 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-DHDP), is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy; levels of 19,20-DHDP increase in the retinas of mice and humans with diabetes, and inhibition of its production can rescue vascular abnormalities in a mouse model of the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25013

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免疫学: Runx3は非リンパ組織と腫瘍におけるCD8+ T細胞常在性をプログラムする

Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours p.253

The transcription factor Runx3 is identified as a central regulator of the development of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells, providing insights into the signals that promote T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature24993

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細胞生物学: 非カノニカルなNotch複合体が、アドヘレンスジャンクションと血管のバリア機能を調節する

A non-canonical Notch complex regulates adherens junctions and vascular barrier function p.258

The transmembrane domain of NOTCH1 plays a key role in the assembly of adherens junctions and the non-transcriptional regulation of vascular permeability that links transcriptional programs with adhesive and cytoskeletal remodelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature24998

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加齢: RNAポリメラーゼIIIはTORC1の下流で寿命を制限する

RNA polymerase III limits longevity downstream of TORC1 p.263

RNA polymerase III is a key evolutionarily conserved regulator of longevity that may have potential as a therapeutic target for age-related conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature25007

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遺伝: 体細胞および生殖細胞系列におけるトランスポゾンの選択的スプライシングのpiRNAを介した調節

piRNA-mediated regulation of transposon alternative splicing in the soma and germ line p.268

A new mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing regulation is revealed that is mediated by piRNA pathway components and is dependent on heterochromatin histone modifications.

doi: 10.1038/nature25018

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分子生物学: α-KGDH複合体と共役したKAT2AはヒストンH3スクシニルトランスフェラーゼとして働く

KAT2A coupled with the α-KGDH complex acts as a histone H3 succinyltransferase p.273

The histone acetyl transferase KAT2A (also known as GCN5) can also catalyse histone succinylation, with the α-KGDH complex providing a local source of succinyl-CoA.

doi: 10.1038/nature25003

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