目次

オンライン特集:幹細胞特集

再生医療への応用に期待が高まる幹細胞。iPS細胞をはじめ、世界各国の幹細胞研究論文や治療に関するニュースなど、最新情報をお伝えする。

Editorials

米国の生物医学研究者は、助成システムの不備より、助成総額の低迷という真の問題にこそ、抗議の声を上げるべきだ。

An unhealthy obsession p.7

The energy expended by US biomedical scientists on complaining about grant-application limits would be better directed at the real problem: stagnant funding.

doi: 10.1038/492007a

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相次いで発覚した政治家の科学的不正行為が、ルーマニアの総選挙に影響を及ぼす可能性がある。

Suspend disbelief p.7

Wrangling over scientific misconduct could influence Romania’s general election.

doi: 10.1038/492007b

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科学予算の予測可能性と安定性が高まれば、米国の科学にとってプラスになるだろう。

Haste not speed p.8

US science would benefit if Congress improved the predictability and stability of funding.

doi: 10.1038/492008a

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News

インドのヒマラヤ山脈でのダム建設計画に、環境破壊を懸念する地元から、激しい反対が。

Flood of protest hits Indian dams p.15

Himalayan plans pose ecological threat, researchers warn.

Jane Qiu

doi: 10.1038/492015a

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燃焼を利用してナノ粒子を簡単に作ることのできる、新しい技術が登場。

Nanoparticle blast caught on film p.16

Combustion could help to make minuscule matter.

Eugenie Samuel Reich

doi: 10.1038/492016a

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米下院の科学宇宙技術委員長に、共和党のスミス氏が。

Quiet Texan to head science committee p.17

Innovation promoter wins key role in US Congress.

Helen Shen

doi: 10.1038/492017a

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米大統領科学技術諮問委員会が、科学予算の安定性や産業界との協力を求める報告書を。

US advisers seek research overhaul p.18

Report calls for stable funding and industry collaborations.

Eric Hand

doi: 10.1038/492018a

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製薬業界からFDAに、抗生物質の臨床試験の規制を緩和するよう、強い要望が。

FDA under pressure to relax drug rules p.19

Industry says antibiotic pipeline is being blocked by overly stringent clinical-trial requirements for new treatments.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/492019a

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気候変動対策の効果を評価するために、巨大都市の温室効果ガスを監視しようという研究が。

Megacities move to track emissions p.20

Scientists monitor greenhouse gases in urban areas as a first step to gauging success of climate initiatives worldwide.

Jeff Tollefson

doi: 10.1038/492020a

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News Features

量子物理学:量子宇宙競争

The quantum space race p.22

Fierce rivals have joined forces in the race to teleport information to and from space.

Zeeya Merali

doi: 10.1038/492022a

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エネルギー:革新的原子炉

Radical reactors p.26

For decades, one design has dominated nuclear reactors while potentially better options were left by the wayside. Now, the alternatives might finally have their day.

M. Mitchell Waldrop

doi: 10.1038/492026a

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News & Views

嗅覚: 神経どうしが交わす親密なささやき

Olfaction: Intimate neuronal whispers p.44

It's a touching story of cohabitation and meaningful communication. Two neighbouring fruitfly neurons talk to each other not by means of synaptic junctions but by interactions through the surrounding electrical field. See Article  p.66

Kazumichi Shimizu, Mark Stopfer

doi: 10.1038/nature11757

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有機化学: 創薬を助ける試薬

Organic chemistry: Toolkit of reagents to aid drug discovery p.45

Reagents have been developed that allow carbon—hydrogen bonds on benzene-like compounds called heterocycles to be converted directly into carbon—carbon bonds. The finding will be a boon to medicinal chemists. See Letter  p.95

William J. Pitts

doi: 10.1038/nature11760

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進化ゲノミクス: 藻類の複雑な起源

Evolutionary genomics: Algae's complex origins p.46

The nuclear genomes of two of nature's most complex cells have been sequenced. The data will help to determine the evolutionary path from symbioses between species to a multi-compartmental unicellular organism. See Article  p.59

Sven B. Gould

doi: 10.1038/nature11759

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太陽系外惑星: 宇宙物理学での擬陽性

Extrasolar planets: Astrophysical false positives p.48

The probability that giant-planet-like signals detected by the Kepler spacecraft are not from planets is higher than expected. The result underscores the importance of making follow-up observations to confirm the nature of the signals.

Andrew Collier Cameron

doi: 10.1038/492048a

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生化学: 自然の巧妙さの別の側面

Biochemistry: Another aspect of nature's ingenuity p.50

Eyewitnesses are sometimes asked to identify a culprit from a line-up of people associated with a crime scene. An enzyme — iridoid synthase — that catalyses an unusual reaction has been identified by a similar approach. See Letter  p.138

Joe Chappell

doi: 10.1038/nature11754

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応用物理学: 光学的トランポリン

Applied physics: An optical trampoline p.51

A neat study shows that a sheet of laser light can be used to reflect light-absorbing liquid droplets and manipulate their trajectories. This observation may open up new ways of controlling and studying aerosols.

David McGloin

doi: 10.1038/492051a

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天文学: まさしく揺籃期の星

Astronomy: A truly embryonic star p.52

The discovery of what may be the best example yet of a forming star caught in the moments just before birth provides a missing link in our understanding of how giant gas clouds collapse to form fully fledged stars. See Letter  p.83

David A. Clarke

doi: 10.1038/492052a

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2012年度ノーベル賞特集 経済学賞: 安定な割り当てとマーケットデザイン

NOBEL 2012 Economics: Stable allocations and market design p.54

As the recipients of the 2012 science Nobel prizes gather in Stockholm to celebrate and be celebrated, News & Views shares some expert opinions on the achievements honoured.

Yan Chen, Jacob Goeree

doi: 10.1038/492054a

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2012年度ノーベル賞特集 物理学賞: 個々の量子系を操作する

NOBEL 2012 Physics: Manipulating individual quantum systems p.55

As the recipients of the 2012 science Nobel prizes gather in Stockholm to celebrate and be celebrated, News & Views shares some expert opinions on the achievements honoured.

Ed Hinds, Rainer Blatt

doi: 10.1038/492055a

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2012年度ノーベル賞特集 医学生理学賞: 成熟した細胞も若返り可能

NOBEL 2012 Physiology or medicine: Mature cells can be rejuvenated p.56

As the recipients of the 2012 science Nobel prizes gather in Stockholm to celebrate and be celebrated, News & Views shares some expert opinions on the achievements honoured.

Janet Rossant, Christine Mummery

doi: 10.1038/492056a

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2012年度ノーベル賞特集 化学賞: 広く存在する受容体ファミリーの研究

NOBEL 2012 Chemistry: Studies of a ubiquitous receptor family p.57

As the recipients of the 2012 science Nobel prizes gather in Stockholm to celebrate and be celebrated, News & Views shares some expert opinions on the achievements honoured.

Bryan L. Roth, Fiona H. Marshall

doi: 10.1038/492057a

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Articles

遺伝: 藻類ゲノムから、進化的モザイク性とヌクレオモルフの運命が明らかになる

Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs p.59

Sequencing the nuclear genomes of Guillardia theta and Bigelowiella natans, transitional forms in the endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of certain eukaryotic algae, reveals unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism (B. natans) and extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, shedding light on why nucleomorphs persist in these species but not other algae.

Bruce A. Curtis, Goro Tanifuji, Fabien Burki, Ansgar Gruber, Manuel Irimia, Shinichiro Maruyama, Maria C. Arias, Steven G. Ball, Gillian H. Gile, Yoshihisa Hirakawa + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11681

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生理: 嗅覚神経回路のニューロン集団間で見られる非シナプス性抑制

Non-synaptic inhibition between grouped neurons in an olfactory circuit p.66

Olfactory receptor neurons of fruitflies are shown to communicate with one another through ephaptic interactions with significant impact on olfactory behaviour; the results indicate that ephaptic effects may be more widespread than previously appreciated.

Chih-Ying Su, Karen Menuz, Johannes Reisert, John R. Carlson

doi: 10.1038/nature11712

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脳: 内嗅領グリッド地図は離散的である

The entorhinal grid map is discretized p.72

Recordings from rat grid cells, cells that are active at periodically spaced locations in the environment, show that they are organized into discrete modules that maintain distinct scale and orientation, and may respond independently to environmental changes.

Hanne Stensola, Tor Stensola, Trygve Solstad, Kristian Frøland, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I. Moser

doi: 10.1038/nature11649

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Letters

宇宙: 赤方偏移が7の位置にある超金属量欠乏ガス

Extremely metal-poor gas at a redshift of 7 p.79

The spectrum of a quasar at redshift 7.04 reveals absorption from a large column of foreground neutral hydrogen with no corresponding heavy elements; this absorbing gas is either diffuse and intergalactic but has not yet been ionized by starlight at this early epoch, or it is gravitationally bound to a proto-galaxy that has a chemical abundance <1/10,000 the solar level.

Robert A. Simcoe, Peter W. Sullivan, Kathy L. Cooksey, Melodie M. Kao, Michael S. Matejek, Adam J. Burgasser

doi: 10.1038/nature11612

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宇宙: 非常に若いL1527 IRS系にあるケプラー円盤を持つ太陽質量の約0.2倍の原始星

A ∼0.2-solar-mass protostar with a Keplerian disk in the very young L1527 IRS system p.83

In the earliest stage of star formation, protostars accrete mass from their surrounding envelopes through circumstellar disks; observations of the protostar L1527 IRS find a large, rotating proto-planetary disk from which the protostellar mass is measured to be 0.19 solar masses, with a protostar-to-envelope mass ratio of about 0.2.

John J. Tobin, Lee Hartmann, Hsin-Fang Chiang, David J. Wilner, Leslie W. Looney, Laurent Loinard, Nuria Calvet, Paola D’Alessio

doi: 10.1038/nature11610

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物性: 膜で結合したコロイドナノアンテナを用いた反射率制御表面

Controlled-reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas p.86

Randomly adsorbing chemically synthesized silver nanocubes, each of which is the optical analogue of a grounded patch antenna, onto a nanoscale-thick polymer spacer layer on a gold film results in a metamaterial surface with a reflectance spectrum that can be tailored by varying the geometry.

Antoine Moreau, Cristian Ciracì, Jack J. Mock, Ryan T. Hill, Qiang Wang, Benjamin J. Wiley, Ashutosh Chilkoti, David R. Smith

doi: 10.1038/nature11615

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材料: 特性調節可能なナノワイヤーの連続的気相合成

Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanowires with tunable properties p.90

Aerotaxy, an aerosol-based growth method, is used to produce gallium arsenide nanowires with a growth rate of about 1 micrometre per second, which is 20 to 1,000 times higher than previously reported for traditional nanowires and allows sensitive and reproducible control of the nanowires’ optical and electronic properties.

Magnus Heurlin, Martin H. Magnusson, David Lindgren, Martin Ek, L. Reine Wallenberg, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson

doi: 10.1038/nature11652

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化学: 本来的な反応性を利用した実際的な複素環の炭素–水素官能基化

Practical and innate carbon–hydrogen functionalization of heterocycles p.95

It is shown that zinc sulphinate salts can be used to transfer alkyl radicals to heterocycles, allowing for the mild, direct and operationally simple formation of medicinally relevant carbon–carbon bonds while reacting in a complementary fashion to other innate carbon–hydrogen functionalization methods.

Yuta Fujiwara, Janice A. Dixon, Fionn O’Hara, Erik Daa Funder, Darryl D. Dixon, Rodrigo A. Rodriguez, Ryan D. Baxter, Bart Herlé, Neal Sach, Michael R. Collins + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11680

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地球: 分岐した河川網の原因

The root of branching river networks p.100

Models and field measurements together show that the branching patterns of fine-scale river networks are the result of coupled instabilities in the erosional processes that drive valley incision.

J. Taylor Perron, Paul W. Richardson, Ken L. Ferrier, Mathieu Lapôtre

doi: 10.1038/nature11672

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発生: 脊椎動物以外の脊索動物における原始的な神経堤の同定

Identification of a rudimentary neural crest in a non-vertebrate chordate p.104

The sessile tunicate Ciona intestinalis possesses a lineage of cells, originating at the margin of the neural plate, that express several neural crest specification genes and can be reprogrammed into migrating ectomesenchyme by the targeted misexpression of Twist.

Philip Barron Abitua, Eileen Wagner, Ignacio A. Navarrete, Michael Levine

doi: 10.1038/nature11589

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医学: EZH2活性化変異を持つリンパ腫の治療戦略となるEZH2阻害

EZH2 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for lymphoma with EZH2-activating mutations p.108

EZH2 is a methyltransferase that is mutated in lymphoma; here a potent small molecule inhibitor of EZH2 is described, which inhibits the proliferation of EZH2 mutant cell lines and growth of EZH2 mutant xenografts in mice, thus providing a potential treatment for EZH2 mutant lymphoma.

Michael T. McCabe, Heidi M. Ott, Gopinath Ganji, Susan Korenchuk, Christine Thompson, Glenn S. Van Aller, Yan Liu, Alan P. Graves, Anthony Della Pietra III, Elsie Diaz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11606

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細胞: フコースの感知は細菌の腸内定着を調節する

Fucose sensing regulates bacterial intestinal colonization p.113

FusKR, a fucose-sensing two-component system, has been identified in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, linking fucose utilization and virulence factor gene expression and providing insight into how sensing of a host signal can facilitate bacterial colonization.

Alline R. Pacheco, Meredith M. Curtis, Jennifer M. Ritchie, Diana Munera, Matthew K. Waldor, Cristiano G. Moreira, Vanessa Sperandio

doi: 10.1038/nature11623

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医学: ヒト化マウスでの広範囲中和抗体の併用によるHIV治療

HIV therapy by a combination of broadly neutralizing antibodies in humanized mice p.118

Passive immunotherapy with a combination of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is shown to be effective in suppressing HIV replication in a humanized mouse model.

Florian Klein, Ariel Halper-Stromberg, Joshua A. Horwitz, Henning Gruell, Johannes F. Scheid, Stylianos Bournazos, Hugo Mouquet, Linda A. Spatz, Ron Diskin, Alexander Abadir + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11604

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細胞: カルシウム感知受容体はCa2+とcAMPを介してNLRP3インフラマソームを調節する

The calcium-sensing receptor regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Ca2+ and cAMP p.123

Evidence is presented that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR).

Geun-Shik Lee, Naeha Subramanian, Andrew I. Kim, Ivona Aksentijevich, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, David B. Sacks, Ronald N. Germain, Daniel L. Kastner, Jae Jin Chae

doi: 10.1038/nature11588

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構造生物学: 内耳の機械刺激伝達に不可欠の力伝達型カドヘリン結合の構造

Structure of a force-conveying cadherin bond essential for inner-ear mechanotransduction p.128

A combination of structural, computational and biophysical tools is used to characterize the bond between tip-link proteins protocadherin 15 and cadherin 23, which have an essential role in inner-ear mechanotransduction; the bond, involving an extended protein handshake, is found to be affected by deafness mutations and is mechanically strong enough to resist forces in hair cells, adding to our understanding of hair-cell sensory transduction and interactions among cadherins.

Marcos Sotomayor, Wilhelm A. Weihofen, Rachelle Gaudet, David P. Corey

doi: 10.1038/nature11590

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細胞: B12補因子はmRNA調節スイッチを直接的に安定化する

B12 cofactors directly stabilize an mRNA regulatory switch p.133

The crystal structures of two different cobalamin (vitamin B12)-binding riboswitches are determined; the structures reveal how cobalamin facilitates interdomain interactions to regulate gene expression.

James E. Johnson Jr, Francis E. Reyes, Jacob T. Polaski, Robert T. Batey

doi: 10.1038/nature11607

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生化学: イリドイド生合成での還元的環化による別の環状テルペン生成ルート

An alternative route to cyclic terpenes by reductive cyclization in iridoid biosynthesis p.138

Iridoids are a large family of bicyclic natural products that possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial activities; here the essential cyclization step in their biosynthesis is identified, opening up the possibility of production of naturally occurring and synthetic variants of iridoids for use in pharmacy or agriculture.

Fernando Geu-Flores, Nathaniel H. Sherden, Vincent Courdavault, Vincent Burlat, Weslee S. Glenn, Cen Wu, Ezekiel Nims, Yuehua Cui, Sarah E. O’Connor

doi: 10.1038/nature11692

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