Research health needs a dedicated group p.413

A US Research Integrity Advisory Board is long overdue. Such a leadership body would mitigate bad practices and strengthen good research.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07330-5

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As climate talks end, it is time for action p.413

Worrying disconnect between emissions rhetoric and real-world trends highlights urgent need for nations to honour their pledges.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07273-x

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Rewarding negative results keeps science on track p.414

Creating a culture of replication takes prizes, grants and magnanimity — as well as publications.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07325-2

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Exoplanet hunters rethink search for alien life p.421

Astronomers expand ideas of how chemistry and geology could affect chances for life on other worlds.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23023

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Online software spots genetic errors in cancer papers p.422

Tool to scrutinize research papers identifies mistakes in gene sequences.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23003

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Giant telescope’s mobile-phone ‘dead zones’ rile South African residents p.423

Sensitive radio dishes of the Square Kilometre Array will affect phone reception — and could harm local economies, say farmers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22998

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Improved diagnostics fail to halt the rise of tuberculosis p.424

TB remains a big killer despite the development of a better test for detecting the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23000

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Hungary rewards highly cited scientists with bonus grants p.425

Some top researchers prosper in Hungary as country tries to improve its international standing in science.

doi: 10.1038/551425a

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News Features

バイオインフォマティクス: ヒトゲノムのベストヒット

The most popular genes in the human genome p.427


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07291-9

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News & Views

構造生物学: 免疫を導く機構

Structural biology: Machinery that guides immunity p.442


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07268-8

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大気科学: 雷による核反応

Atmospheric science: Thunderous nuclear reactions p.443


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07266-w

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がん免疫療法: T細胞が腫瘍細胞を見分ける仕組み

Cancer immunotherapy: How T cells spot tumour cells p.444


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07267-9

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微生物学: 地球の微生物のクラウドソーシング

Microbiology: Crowdsourcing Earth's microbes p.446


doi: 10.1038/nature24756

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有機化学: 結合開裂のための超反応性触媒

Organic chemistry: Super-reactive catalyst for bond cleavage p.447


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07270-0

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エピトランスクリプトミクス: 発生中の脳の階層化した調節

Epitranscriptomics: Layered-up regulation in the developing brain p.448


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07269-7

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古生物学: 耳に5つの聴骨を持つ、真ハラミヤ目に属するジュラ紀の滑空性哺乳類

A Jurassic gliding euharamiyidan mammal with an ear of five auditory bones p.451

The fossil of a gliding mammal from the Jurassic period sheds light on both the evolution of gliding and the development of the middle ear, as it has a previously unseen five-ossicle auditory system.

doi: 10.1038/nature24483

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微生物学: 群集カタログが明らかにする地球のマルチスケールの微生物多様性

A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity OPEN p.457

As phase 1 of the Earth Microbiome Project, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from more than 27,000 environmental samples delivers a global picture of the basic structure and drivers of microbial distribution.

doi: 10.1038/nature24621

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遺伝子工学: DNAを切断せずにゲノムDNA内のA–TをG–Cへ変換するプログラム可能な一塩基編集技術

Programmable base editing of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA without DNA cleavage p.464

A new DNA ‘base editor’ can change targeted A•T base pairs to G•C, allowing disease-associated mutations to be corrected and disease-suppressing mutations to be introduced into cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24644

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構造生物学: ヒト80Sリボソーム構造中の化学修飾の可視化

Visualization of chemical modifications in the human 80S ribosome structure p.472

A high-resolution structure of the human ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy visualizes numerous RNA modifications that are concentrated at functional sites with an extended shell, and suggests the possibility of designing more specific ribosome-targeting drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature24482

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天文学: ペルセウス座銀河団の鉄ピーク元素は太陽と同じ存在比

Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster p.478

High-resolution X-ray spectra show near-solar abundances of chromium, manganese and nickel with respect to iron in the Perseus cluster, suggesting that the progenitors of type Ia supernovae could be near- and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.

doi: 10.1038/nature24301

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大気化学: 雷放電によって引き起こされる光核反応

Photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge p.481

Ground-based observations during a thunderstorm provide conclusive evidence of positrons being produced after lightning, confirming that lightning can trigger photonuclear reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24630

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量子物理学: 低温原子ガスと結晶の間でのフォトニック量子状態転送

Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal p.485

In a step towards hybrid quantum networks, a quantum state can be transferred between two fundamentally different systems—a cold atomic ensemble and a solid-state crystal—by a single photon.

doi: 10.1038/nature24468

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有機化学: 配向基を用いず配位子によって加速されるアレーンのC–H官能基化

Ligand-accelerated non-directed C–H functionalization of arenes p.489

Using a ligand as a promoter enhances the reactivity of the palladium catalyst in non-directed C–H functionalization of arenes, enabling the arene to be used as the limiting reagent.

doi: 10.1038/nature24632

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地球科学: 水素を含む過酸化鉄と超低速度領域の起源

Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide and the origin of ultralow-velocity zones p.494

A reaction between iron and water at the high pressure and temperature of the lowermost mantle is described that produces hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide, which has the properties expected of the ultralow-velocity zones at Earth’s core–mantle boundary.

doi: 10.1038/nature24461

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ゲノミクス: コムギのDゲノムの起源であるタルホコムギのゲノム塩基配列

Genome sequence of the progenitor of the wheat D genome Aegilops tauschii OPEN p.498

A combination of advanced sequencing and mapping techniques is used to produce a reference genome of Aegilops tauschii, progenitor of the wheat D genome, providing a valuable resource for comparative genetic studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature24486

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神経科学: シナプトタグミン7は特殊な減衰シナプスへ頻度不変性を付与する

Synaptotagmin 7 confers frequency invariance onto specialized depressing synapses p.503

The calcium-sensing protein synaptotagmin 7 mediates facilitation that is masked by depression, but supports frequency-invariant transmission in mouse cerebellar and vestibular synapses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24474

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バイオインフォマティクス: 定量的マイクロバイオームプロファイリングで明らかになった腸内細菌群集の変動と微生物量の関連

Quantitative microbiome profiling links gut community variation to microbial load p.507

Quantitive microbiome profiling reveals that total microbial load is an important determinant of enterotypes and may be a key driver of microbiota alterations in patients with Crohn’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature24460

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がん免疫療法: 膵臓がんの長期生存者における独特なネオアンチゲンの質の特定

Identification of unique neoantigen qualities in long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer p.512

The analysis of T-cell antigens in long-term survivors of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma suggests that neoantigen immunogenicity and quality, not purely quantity, correlate with survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature24462

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がん免疫療法: ネオアンチゲン適応度モデルは免疫チェックポイント阻害療法に対する腫瘍の応答を予測する

A neoantigen fitness model predicts tumour response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy p.517

An immune fitness model for tumours under checkpoint blockade immunotherapy is proposed, through which the authors show that the presentation and recognition properties of dominant neoantigens distributed over tumour subclones are predictive of response in melanoma and lung cancer cohorts.

doi: 10.1038/nature24473

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構造生物学: ゴルジ膜を通過する糖ヌクレオチド輸送の構造基盤

Structural basis of nucleotide sugar transport across the Golgi membrane p.521

Crystal structures of the nucleotide sugar transporter Vrg4 are reported in both the substrate-free and the bound states.

doi: 10.1038/nature24464

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構造生物学: ヒトMHC-I ペプチドローディング複合体の構造

Structure of the human MHC-I peptide-loading complex p.525

Electron cryo-microscopy structures of the human peptide-loading complex shed light on its operation and on the onset of adaptive immune responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24627

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