Volume 554 Number 7693



Science needs to redefine excellence p.403

The concept of research excellence is ubiquitous, but its meaning depends on context.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02183-y


Adolescence research must grow up p.403

Young people get a raw deal from society. Targeted study and approaches as part of a new global effort are urgently needed to help them.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02185-w


Why current negative-emissions strategies remain ‘magical thinking’ p.404

Work on how rocks draw carbon from the air shows the scale of the challenge.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02184-x



Italian election leaves science out in the cold p.411

Researchers hold out little hope that the next government will improve their underfunded research system.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02223-7


Physicists plan antimatter’s first outing — in a van p.412

Researchers intend to transport the elusive material between labs and use it to study the strange behaviour of rare radioactive nuclei.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02221-9


Ocean-wide sensor array provides new look at global ocean current p.413

Initial findings hint at the complexity of currents in the North Atlantic that drive the world's weather.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02113-y


CRISPR hack transforms cells into data recorders p.414

Gene-editing tool can be harnessed to give a close-up view of life's most basic processes.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02068-0


Indonesian scientists hamstrung by year-long funding delay p.415

The country's dedicated science fund has failed to raise enough money to finance projects.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02118-7

News Features


Sex and drugs and self-control: how the teen brain navigates risk p.426


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02170-3


Who exactly counts as an adolescent? p.429


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02169-w

News & Views


In retrospect: Pruning hypothesis comes of age p.438


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02053-7


Mechanochemistry: Molecules pressured to react p.468


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02047-5


Structural biology: Force-activated ion channels in close-up p.469


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01631-z


Pancreatic disease: An inflammatory transcriptional switch p.470


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01262-4


Engineering: Neurons mimicked by electronics p.472


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02025-x



Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective p.441

doi: 10.1038/nature25770


Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence p.451

doi: 10.1038/nature25750



Adolescence and the next generation OPEN p.458

Investing in adolescents as the parents of the next generation is important for the wellbeing of current and future generations.

doi: 10.1038/nature25759



A molecular atlas of cell types and zonation in the brain vasculature p.475

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the murine blood–brain barrier provides molecular definitions of the main vascular cell types, classifies perivascular cell types and sheds light on the organization of the arteriovenous axis.

doi: 10.1038/nature25739


Structure of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1 p.481

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals six Piezo repeats, and 26 transmembrane helices per protomer, and shows that a kinked helical beam and anchor domain link the Piezo repeats to the pore and control gating allosterically.

doi: 10.1038/nature25453


Structure and mechanogating mechanism of the Piezo1 channel p.487

The electron cryo-microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals unique topological features such as the repetitive transmembrane helical units that constitute the highly curved transmembrane region, and identifies regions and single residues that are crucial for the mechanical activation of the channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature25743



A clumpy and anisotropic galaxy halo at redshift 1 from gravitational-arc tomography p.493

The halo of gas around a galaxy at redshift 1 is clumpy and anisotropic, with little variation in gas velocity, suggesting that it consists of entrained recycled material.

doi: 10.1038/nature25436


A surge of light at the birth of a supernova p.497

The discovery of a newly born type IIb supernova reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths that corresponds to the shock-breakout phase of the explosion.

doi: 10.1038/nature25151


Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide p.500

Polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide is used to fabricate a multi-terminal device combining a memristor and a transistor, which can mimic biological neurons with multiple synapses for neuromorphic computing applications.

doi: 10.1038/nature25747


Sterically controlled mechanochemistry under hydrostatic pressure p.505

‘Molecular anvil’ molecules consisting of a compressible mechanophore and incompressible ligands react under hydrostatic pressure to produce elemental metal via an unexplored mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature25765


Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C–H fluorination p.511

An approach for the direct electrophilic C–H fluorination of arenes is reported, using a palladium catalyst and mild fluorinating reagents.

doi: 10.1038/nature25749


Meridional overturning circulation conveys fast acidification to the deep Atlantic Ocean p.515

There has been a reduction of about forty per cent in the transport of carbonate ions to the deep North Atlantic Ocean since preindustrial times, severely endangering cold-water corals.

doi: 10.1038/nature25493


Global patterns of tropical forest fragmentation p.519

Satellite data and modelling reveal that tropical forest fragments have similar size distributions across continents, and that forest fragmentation is close to a critical point, beyond which fragment numbers will strongly increase.

doi: 10.1038/nature25508

細胞生物学:組織の硬化はin vivoで細胞の集団移動を引き起こすことにより形態形成を調整する

Tissue stiffening coordinates morphogenesis by triggering collective cell migration in vivo p.523

Stiffening of the mesoderm owing to an accumulation of cells triggers collective migration of neural crest cells during morphogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature25742


Peptidoglycan synthesis drives an FtsZ-treadmilling-independent step of cytokinesis p.528

Single-cell fluorescence microscopy reveals that cytokinesis occurs in two stages in Staphylococcus aureus, an initial slow phase followed by a faster phase after MurJ protein recruitment to the midcell triggers peptidoglycan synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature25506


Transcriptional regulation by NR5A2 links differentiation and inflammation in the pancreas p.533

In mouse pancreas cells with only one copy of the Nr5a2 gene, the orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional shift from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes, which results in an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state.

doi: 10.1038/nature25751


TGFβ drives immune evasion in genetically reconstituted colon cancer metastasis p.538

A combination of TGFβ inhibition and checkpoint-inhibition therapy provokes a potent cytotoxic response against metastatic tumours derived from colorectal cancers in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature25492


TGFβ attenuates tumour response to PD-L1 blockade by contributing to exclusion of T cells p.544

In humans, TGFβ signalling is associated with lack of response to immunotherapy in immune-excluded tumours; in mouse models of this immune phenotype, robust tumour infiltration by T cells and tumour regression are observed only when checkpoint inhibition is combined with inhibition of TGFβ signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature25501


MEK drives BRAF activation through allosteric control of KSR proteins p.549

KSR–MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts, thus challenging the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.

doi: 10.1038/nature25478

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