Volume 552 Number 7685



Extreme weather explicitly blamed on humans for the first time p.291

Scientists take the bold step of saying phenomena wouldn’t have happened without global warming.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08808-y


Biohackers can boost trust in biology p.291

DIY scientists in Germany can bring techniques out of the lab and help the country learn to love the field.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08807-z


Interstellar message of ‘Oumuamua p.292

Mysterious traveller from afar highlights a seasonal greeting.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08809-x



Rescued radar maps reveal Antarctica's past p.299

More than 2 million newly digitized images extend the history of the bottom of the ice sheet.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08329-8


Gene editing staves off deafness in mice p.300

Technique to knock out mutant gene relies on fatty molecules to deliver CRISPR components to inner-ear cells.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08722-3


Could Bitcoin technology help science? p.301

Blockchain could lend security measures to the scientific process, but the approach has its own risks.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08589-4


South Korean scientists eager for reactor restart p.302

It’s good news for neutron scientists in the region.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08476-y


2017 in news: The science events that shaped the year p.304

A giant iceberg, a quantum-entanglement experiment and the death of a spacecraft are among the year’s top stories.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08493-x


2017 in pictures: The best science images of the year p.308

A spectacular total eclipse, hitch-hiking octopus, nanoscale fireworks and more.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08492-y

News Features


Nature's 10 p.315


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07763-y

News & Views


Microbial ecology: Energy from thin air p.336


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07579-w


Immunology: The origins of memory T cells p.337


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08280-8


Planetary science: Martian water stored underground p.339


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08670-y


Cancer: Tumour lymph vessels boost immunotherapy p.340


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08669-5


Neurodegenerative disorders: Specks of insight into Alzheimer’s disease p.342


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08668-6


2017 in research: Choice cuts from this year’s News & Views articles p.344

今年度掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した記事の抜粋。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08516-7



Synthesis of E- and Z-trisubstituted alkenes by catalytic cross-metathesis p.347

An approach for the synthesis of E- and Z- trisubstituted alkenes in high stereoisomeric purity is developed by merging catalytic cross-metathesis and cross-coupling processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature25002


Microglia-derived ASC specks crossseed amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s disease p.355

The spreading of pathology within and between brain areas is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, deposition of amyloid-β is accompanied by activation of the innate immune system and involves inflammasome-dependent formation of ASC specks in microglia. ASC specks released by microglia bind rapidly to amyloid-β and increase the formation of amyloid-β oligomers and aggregates, acting as an inflammation-driven cross-seed for amyloid-β pathology. Here we show that intrahippocampal injection of ASC specks resulted in spreading of amyloid-β pathology in transgenic double-mutant APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. By contrast, homogenates from brains of APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice failed to induce seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in ASC-deficient APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. Moreover, co-application of an anti-ASC antibody blocked the increase in amyloid-β pathology in APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. These findings support the concept that inflammasome activation is connected to seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25158

免疫学:ワクチン接種後のヒト記憶CD8 T細胞の起源と分化

Origin and differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells after vaccination p.362

In vivo deuterium labelling reveals a quiescent population of long-lived human virus-specific memory CD8 T cells that maintain the epigenetic landscape of effector cells, which facilitates rapid responses to pathogen re-exposure.

doi: 10.1038/nature24633


Mechanisms of mTORC1 activation by RHEB and inhibition by PRAS40 p.368

The cryo-electron microscopy and crystal structures of several mTORC1 complexes, and accompanying biochemical analyses, shed light on how mTORC1 is regulated and how cancer mutations lead to its hyperactivation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25023



Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet p.374

The spectral variability of the blazar CTA 102 during a recent extreme outburst could be explained by a twisted, inhomogeneous jet containing regions of different orientations that vary in time.

doi: 10.1038/nature24623


A brief visit from a red and extremely elongated interstellar asteroid p.378

The first interstellar object to be detected in the Solar System is asteroidal in nature and has a shape unlike any Solar System body, with a length about ten times its width.

doi: 10.1038/nature25020


Measurement of electrons from albedo neutron decay and neutron density in near-Earth space p.382

Electrons derived from cosmic rays become trapped in the radiation belts that surround Earth, but how the electrons are generated has been uncertain; new measurements confirm the involvement of neutron decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature24642


Discovery of a big void in Khufu’s Pyramid by observation of cosmic-ray muons p.386

Cosmic-ray muon radiography has been used to non-invasively visualize the voids in the Great Pyramid (Khufu’s Pyramid), revealing a large void situated above the Grand Gallery.

doi: 10.1038/nature24647


The divergent fates of primitive hydrospheric water on Earth and Mars p.391

Modelling the reactions of water with the crusts of early Earth and Mars sheds light on how water was transported through their crusts to give the surfaces we see today.

doi: 10.1038/nature25031


Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs p.395

The recently discovered theropod Halszkaraptor escuillei reveals a novel basal dromaeosaurid clade, and its adaptations that suggest a semi-aquatic predatory lifestyle add an additional ecomorphology to those developed by non-avian maniraptorans.

doi: 10.1038/nature24679


Atmospheric trace gases support primary production in Antarctic desert surface soil p.400

Metagenomic and biochemical analyses of soil samples from Antarctic desert regions provides evidence that bacteria in these soils derive carbon and energy from atmospheric CO, H2 and CO2.

doi: 10.1038/nature25014

免疫学:エフェクターCD8 T細胞は長期生存記憶細胞へ脱分化する

Effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiate into long-lived memory cells p.404

DNA methylation profiling of virus-specific T cells during acute viral infection in mice provides evidence that a fate-permissive subset of effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiates into long-lived memory T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature25144


Dynamics of phosphoinositide conversion in clathrin-mediated endocytic traffic p.410

‘Coincidence-detecting’ phosphoinositide sensors are used to study changes in the phosphoinositide lipid species found in membranes during the development and maturation of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles.

doi: 10.1038/nature25146


Evolution of a designed protein assembly encapsulating its own RNA genome p.415

Computationally designed icosahedral protein-based assemblies can protect their genetic material and evolve in biochemical environments, suggesting a route to the custom design of synthetic nanomaterials for non-viral drug delivery.

doi: 10.1038/nature25157


Activation mechanism of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A revealed by cryo-EM p.421

Cryo-electron microscopy mapping of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A combined with functional experiments reveals that calcium ions interact directly with the pore to activate the channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature24652


Cryo-EM structures of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel p.426

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. Here we present de novo atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A in nanodiscs and in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol as determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. These structures reveal the ion permeation pore and represent different functional states. The structure in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol has one Ca2+ ion resolved within each monomer with a constricted pore; this is likely to correspond to a closed state, because a CaCC with a single Ca2+ occupancy requires membrane depolarization in order to open (C.J.P. et al., manuscript submitted). The structure in nanodiscs has two Ca2+ ions per monomer and its pore is in a closed conformation; this probably reflects channel rundown, which is the gradual loss of channel activity that follows prolonged CaCC activation in 1 mM Ca2+. Our mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies, prompted by analyses of the structures, identified ten residues distributed along the pore that interact with permeant anions and affect anion selectivity, as well as seven pore-lining residues that cluster near pore constrictions and regulate channel gating. Together, these results clarify the basis of CaCC anion conduction.

doi: 10.1038/nature25024

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