目次

Editorials

人の国際的な流動性と協力は、科学研究の質を高めることにつながる。

http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/550007b p.7

International mobility and collaboration are linked to stronger research.

doi: 10.1038/550007b

プレートテクトニクスをはじめとして、科学的な発見の正確な記念日を定めることは難しい。

Discoveries have awkward first dates p.7

Fuzzy timings over a plate-tectonics anniversary highlight the rolling nature of scientific discovery.

doi: 10.1038/550007a

欧州連合(EU)の共同研究センター(JRC)は、改革が功を奏し順調に機能しており、さらに野心的な取り組みを進めるべきだ。

Europe’s Joint Research Centre, although improving, must think bigger p.8

External report criticizes lack of exploratory research.

doi: 10.1038/550008a

News

ヒト胚の精密な遺伝子編集により、血液疾患が治療できる見込みが。

Chinese scientists fix genetic disorder in cloned human embryos p.15

A method for precisely editing genes in human embryos hints at a cure for a blood disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22694

インターネット上の公用データを使った研究に対し、厳しい倫理指針を求める声が。

Ethics of Internet research trigger scrutiny p.16

Concern over the use of public data spurs guideline update.

doi: 10.1038/550016a

米国トランプ大統領が、さらなる入国制限令を。

How the latest US travel ban could affect science p.17

Short-term travel and meeting attendance could become harder for researchers from eight countries, including Iran.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22686

2017年のノーベル医学生理学賞は、概日リズムの分子機構を解明した米国の3氏へ。

Medicine Nobel awarded for work on circadian clocks p.18

Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young unpicked molecular workings of cells' daily rhythms.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22736

ノーベル物理学賞は、重力波の初観測への寄与で、米国の3氏に。

Gravitational wave detection wins physics Nobel p.19

Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish and Kip Thorne share the 2017 prize for their work at LIGO to detect ripples in space-time.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22737

米国ハワイのTMT(30メートル望遠鏡)建設計画に、改めてゴーサインが。

Controversial Thirty Meter Telescope gets go-ahead to build in Hawaii p.20

State board issues construction permit for project, but legal fight over telescope continues.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22731

News Features

イノベーション:海に浮かぶ理想郷

Why fake islands might be a real boon for science p.22

タヒチのラグーンに人工島を建設し、生態系や技術の研究室にしようという野心的な計画が進められている。

doi: 10.1038/550022a

化学:ガスのゴールドラッシュ

How fracking is upending the chemical industry p.26

安価で豊富なシェールガスが、化学工業を様変わりさせている。

doi: 10.1038/550026a

News & Views

進化学:ウイルスRNAを攻撃

Evolution: Zapping viral RNAs p.46

宿主防御タンパク質ZAPが、CG(シトシン・グアニン)という特定の並びの塩基対が豊富なウイルスRNAを特異的に標的にすることが分かった。これは、ウイルスRNAゲノムの進化の解明に役立つ。

doi: 10.1038/nature24140

医用画像化:X線検出器の材料を変える

Medical imaging: Material change for X-ray detectors p.47

放射線計測器の感度は、検出器に使用される材料によって制限される。今回、ペロブスカイト族の半導体材料によって、医用画像化に使用されるX線量を少なくできる可能性が出てきた。

doi: 10.1038/550047a

生態学:自然保護の世界的な計画

Ecology: A global plan for nature conservation p.48

国際的動向は、少なくとも地球の半分を保全の対象とするよう求めている。今回、全球規模の研究によって、多くの生態地域では、この目標を達成するのに十分な生息地が存在することが明らかになっており、次の段階に必要なアイデアが提案された。

doi: 10.1038/nature24144

工学:コンピューターによって達成された記録的な解像度の設計

Engineering: Computational design hits record resolution p.50

スーパーコンピューターの力を利用した設計手法によって、これまでにないレベルの詳細さで効率の良い機械構造を見つけられるようになった。この研究結果から、物理的構造のみならず生物学的構造の知見も得られる。

doi: 10.1038/550050a

生態学:熱帯の多様性における時間の問題

Ecology: A matter of time for tropical diversity p.51

地球には種の多様性の勾配があり、赤道の近くで多様性が最も大きいことが分かっている。今回、森林データの解析によって、この現象の背後にあると思われる熱帯における種の共存を助ける機構が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24142

Review

遺伝子工学:遺伝暗号の拡張と再プログラム化

Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code p.53

A review of the recent developments in reprogramming the genetic code of cells and organisms to include non-canonical amino acids in precisely engineered proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature24031

Articles

微生物群集:拡大版ヒトマイクロバイオームプロジェクトにおける系統、機能、動態

Strains, functions and dynamics in the expanded Human Microbiome Project p.61

Updates from the Human Microbiome Project analyse the largest known body-wide metagenomic profile of human microbiome personalization.

doi: 10.1038/nature23889

幹細胞:ゲノム編集で明らかになるヒト胚発生におけるOCT4の役割

Genome editing reveals a role for OCT4 in human embryogenesis p.67

Genome editing in human zygotes shows that OCT4 is required for normal development at an earlier stage in humans than in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature24033

タンパク質設計:標的治療のための大規模で並行的なde novoタンパク質設計法

Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics p.74

A massively parallel computational and experimental approach for de novo designing and screening small hyperstable proteins targeting influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B identifies new therapeutic candidates more robust than traditional antibody therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature23912

Letters

天文学:ヘリウム殻の爆発をきっかけとして生じる初期閃光を伴うハイブリッドなIa型超新星

A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation p.80

The detection and simulation of a type Ia supernova with an early, red flash suggests that it formed through detonation of the helium shell of a white dwarf, rather than by collision of the ejecta with a companion star or by merging with another white dwarf.

doi: 10.1038/nature23908

工学:構造設計のためのギガボクセル計算形態創生

Giga-voxel computational morphogenesis for structural design p.84

Giga-voxel-resolution computational morphogenesis is used to optimize the internal structure of a full-scale aeroplane wing, yielding light-weight designs with more similarities to animal bone structures than to current aeroplane wing designs.

doi: 10.1038/nature23911

フォトニクス:印刷可能な有機金属ペロブスカイトによって可能となった大面積かつ低線量のX線画像化

Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging p.87

Highly sensitive all-solution-based detectors based on printable polycrystalline organometallic perovskite thick films enable X-ray imaging at low radiation doses and over large areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature24032

太陽電池:高効率太陽電池モジュール用の大面積ペロブスカイト膜を溶媒・真空不使用で作製する方法

A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules p.92

A new deposition method for solar-panel polycrystalline perovskite thin films enables the production of large-area uniform films and avoids the need for common solvents or vacuum.

doi: 10.1038/nature23877

化学:金属有機構造体におけるスピン転移による協同的吸着機構

A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal–organic frameworks p.96

Metal–organic frameworks that undergo a cooperative spin transition at neighbouring metal centres upon coordination to CO exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature23674

気候科学:氷河の質量損失の増大によって駆動されるグリーンランドにおけるデルタの前進平衡作用

Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss p.101

Climate change has the potential to erode coastlines, but a rediscovered archive of aerial photographs from the Second World War shows that in southern Greenland, deltas have recently extended seaward.

doi: 10.1038/nature23873

生態学:森林多様性の緯度勾配には時間的共存機構が寄与している

Temporal coexistence mechanisms contribute to the latitudinal gradient in forest diversity p.105

High tree species diversity in tropical forests is driven by reduced interspecific competition relative to intraspecific competition, as a result of the asynchronous timing of tree recruitment permitted by long and stable growing seasons.

doi: 10.1038/nature24038

神経科学:恒常的シナプス可塑性を駆動するセマフォリン–プレキシン逆行性シグナル伝達

Retrograde semaphorin–plexin signalling drives homeostatic synaptic plasticity p.109

Homeostatic signalling systems ensure stable but flexible neural activity and animal behaviour. Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity is a conserved form of neuronal homeostatic signalling that is observed in organisms ranging from Drosophila to human. Defining the underlying molecular mechanisms of neuronal homeostatic signalling will be essential in order to establish clear connections to the causes and progression of neurological disease. During neural development, semaphorin–plexin signalling instructs axon guidance and neuronal morphogenesis. However, semaphorins and plexins are also expressed in the adult brain. Here we show that semaphorin 2b (Sema2b) is a target-derived signal that acts upon presynaptic plexin B (PlexB) receptors to mediate the retrograde, homeostatic control of presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Further, we show that Sema2b–PlexB signalling regulates presynaptic homeostatic plasticity through the cytoplasmic protein Mical and the oxoreductase-dependent control of presynaptic actin. We propose that semaphorin–plexin signalling is an essential platform for the stabilization of synaptic transmission throughout the developing and mature nervous system. These findings may be relevant to the aetiology and treatment of diverse neurological and psychiatric diseases that are characterized by altered or inappropriate neural function and behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature24017

細胞生物学:機能的ゲノミクスのための可逆的なマウス半数体胚性幹細胞のバイオバンク資源

A reversible haploid mouse embryonic stem cell biobank resource for functional genomics p.114

The Haplobank contains over 100,000 individually reversibly mutagenized, barcoded, mouse embryonic cell lines; proof-of-principle experiments were used to search for genes that are required for rhinovirus infection and angiogenesis using forward and reverse genetic screens, respectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature24027

免疫学:マクロファージでのインフラマソームによるカテコールアミンの異化は加齢の間に脂肪分解を減弱させる

Inflammasome-driven catecholamine catabolism in macrophages blunts lipolysis during ageing p.119

Lipolysis declines with age because NLRP3 inflammasome-activated adipose tissue macrophages reduce levels of noradrenaline by upregulating genes that control its degradation, such as GDF3 and MAOA.

doi: 10.1038/nature24022

ウイルス学:CGジヌクレオチドサプレッションは非自己RNAを標的とする抗ウイルス防御を可能にする

CG dinucleotide suppression enables antiviral defence targeting non-self RNA p.124

Vertebrate genomes contain fewer CG dinucleotides than would be expected by chance, and this pattern is mimicked by many viruses; HIV-1 derivatives mutated to contain more CG dinucleotides are targeted by the human antiviral protein ZAP, suggesting that CG suppression has evolved in viruses to evade recognition.

doi: 10.1038/nature24039

がん:細胞系列特異的な腫瘍を標的にするp300/CBP選択的触媒阻害剤の発見

Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours p.128

A potent and selective catalytic inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferases suppresses tumour proliferation across multiple cell lineages, illustrating the therapeutic potential of drug-like small molecules that target histone acetyltransferases.

doi: 10.1038/nature24028

がん:PAKシグナル伝達がBRAF変異型黒色腫におけるMAPK阻害剤への薬剤抵抗性の獲得を促す

PAK signalling drives acquired drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors in BRAF-mutant melanomas p.133

BRAF-inhibition resistance in metastatic melanoma occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated reactivation of ERK, whereas resistance to combined BRAF and MEK inhibition occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated regulation of JNK and β-catenin phosphorylation, mTOR pathway activation and apoptosis inhibition in many patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature24040

構造生物学:II型CRISPR–Casが、Cas1–Cas2を介したスペーサー組み込みを介して免疫を確立する仕組み

How type II CRISPR–Cas establish immunity through Cas1–Cas2-mediated spacer integration p.137

Several structures of the Enteroccocus faecalis Cas1–Cas2 proteins are solved, and help to define the spacer integration mechanisms of type II CRISPR systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature24020

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