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Editorials

スペースX社の「ファルコンヘビー」の打ち上げ成功は、深宇宙探査の商業化への道を開く素晴らしい成果だ。

SpaceX ignites big dreams p.275

The successful launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket was a stunning moment that opens the way for commercial exploration of deep space.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01877-7

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地球温暖化と暴力的紛争との関連を示した研究の多くに、偏向があることが明らかになった。

Don’t jump to conclusions about climate change and civil conflict p.275

Many studies that link global warming to civil unrest are biased and exacerbate stigma about the developing world.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01875-9

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論文に、プロポーズや不満など個人的なメッセージを忍び込ませるのは止めよう。

From proposals to snarks: the messages that scientists sneak into their papers p.276

Researchers have hidden secret notes in their manuscripts for decades, but there are risks.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01876-8

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News

樹木の年輪から、米国南西部で森林火災が起きやすい気候パターンが明らかに。

Tree rings reveal increased fire risk for southwestern US p.283

Historical record of wildfires points to climate patterns that could prime the region for an intense fire season.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01686-y

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米国トランプ政権の2019会計年度予算教書は、予想どおり科学者たちを失望させる結果に。

Trump science budget sows confusion p.284

US president makes last-minute decision to abandon proposal for major cuts to National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation and Department of Energy’s science office.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01985-4

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WHOが進める感染症フランベジア根絶計画は、非ヒト霊長類野生宿主の影響を考慮していないために達成できない可能性が。

Wild primates threaten efforts to wipe out skin disease p.286

Efforts to combat disfiguring skin disease fail to account for primate hosts.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01703-0

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MeerKAT電波望遠鏡の本格稼働を控える南アフリカで、大量のデータ処理のための準備が着々と。

Deluge of astronomical data will soon hit South Africa p.286

The expansion of a telescope network creates a thirst for more data-handling expertise and infrastructure.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01838-0

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全米科学財団(NSF)は、資金を提供する研究機関でセクハラ問題が発生した場合に、その報告を求める方針へ。

US science agency will require universities to report sexual harassment p.287

The National Science Foundation says institutions it supports must disclose when researchers are found to have violated policies or are put on leave pending investigation.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01744-5

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News Features

量子物理学:もつれ合うウェブ

The quantum internet has arrived (and it hasn’t) p.289

量子の特異な性質を利用する量子テレポーテーションは、ネットワークのセキュリティーを根底から変える可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01835-3

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News & Views

宇宙物理学:脈動オーロラの起源

Space physics: The origin of pulsating auroras p.302

脈動オーロラと呼ばれる地球大気の壮観な光のショーは、宇宙空間の過程と直接つながっている。数十年の研究を経て、こうしたオーロラを生み出す一連の事象が全て観測された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01669-z

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動物行動学:大きな群れが鳥の知能を高める

Animal behaviour: Brainpower boost for birds in large groups p.303

複雑な社会生活を送る種の方が知能が高いかどうかは、議論の的であるとともに検証が難しい。今回野生のカササギフエガラスにおいて、認知能力とそれに伴う繁殖成功が、群れのサイズと関連付けられた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01487-3

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神経科学:バースト発火がうつの準備をする

Neuroscience: Burst firing sets the stage for depression p.304

今回、脳の外側手綱核におけるニューロン活動が、アストロサイトに調節されて一斉に起こると、齧歯類でうつ様行動が生じることが分かった。この知見は、ある抗うつ薬の理解やより多くの抗うつ薬の開発に役立つ可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01588-z

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神経科学:過去から解き放たれた作業記憶

Neuroscience: Working memory freed from the past p.306

作業記憶は、過去の経験の影響を受ける。今回、最近の経験を表現するラットの脳領域が特定され、この領域を抑制すると、作業記憶や意思決定からバイアスが除かれることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01418-2

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物性物理学:磁性ハニカムの2つの顔

Condensed-matter physics: The two faces of a magnetic honeycomb p.307

量子スピン液体は、長く探求されてきた物質の新奇な状態で、量子計算を変容させる可能性がある。今回、ハニカム格子の上にイリジウムイオンがある化合物で、そうした状態の特徴が観測された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01747-2

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医学研究:乳がんにおける侵入性細胞の痕跡

Medical research: On the trail of invasive cells in breast cancer p.308

乳がんのプログレッションでは、乳管で発生した腫瘍細胞が乳房の他の部分に広がる。今回、空間的に限定された単一細胞の分析によって、こうした侵入性の腫瘍細胞の起源が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01634-w

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Articles

植物科学:ミカン属の起源と進化のゲノミクス

Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus OPEN p.311

The origin, evolution and domestication of Citrus and the genealogy of the most important wild and cultivated citrus varieties.

doi: 10.1038/nature25447

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神経科学:ケタミンは外側手綱核でのバースト発火を防いでうつを速やかに緩和する

Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression p.317

The rapid antidepressant activity of ketamine results from reversal of increased burst firing and synchronization in the lateral habenula in rat and mouse models of depression.

doi: 10.1038/nature25509

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神経科学:外側手綱核アストログリアのKir4.1はうつ病でのニューロンのバースト発火を促す

Astroglial Kir4.1 in the lateral habenula drives neuronal bursts in depression p.323

Increased expression of the potassium channel Kir4.1 on astrocytes in the lateral habenula drives neuronal bursting in rodent models of depression.

doi: 10.1038/nature25752

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神経回路:テニューリン3は海馬のトポグラフィックな神経回路の組み立てを制御する

Teneurin-3 controls topographic circuit assembly in the hippocampus p.328

The transmembrane protein teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region and acts in both projection and target neurons to control wiring specificity from CA1 to the subiculum.

doi: 10.1038/nature25463

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Letters

天文学:大マゼラン雲にある大質量の若い星からのパーセクスケールの可視光領域のジェット

A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud p.334

Observations of a highly collimated, parsec-scale jet emitted from a massive young stellar object in the Large Magellanic Cloud indicate that jet launching and collimation are independent of stellar mass.

doi: 10.1038/nature25189

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宇宙物理学:コーラス波による電子散乱に起因する脈動オーロラ

Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves p.337

High-angular-resolution measurements allow the direct observation of the scattering of energetic electrons by chorus waves in the magnetosphere, which causes quasiperiodic electron precipitation that gives rise to pulsating aurorae.

doi: 10.1038/nature25505

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物性物理学:ハニカム格子上のスピン–軌道量子液体

A spin–orbital-entangled quantum liquid on a honeycomb lattice p.341

A quantum-liquid state of spin–orbital-entangled magnetic moments is observed in the 5d-electron honeycomb iridate H3LiIr2O6, evidenced by the absence of magnetic ordering down to 0.05 kelvin.

doi: 10.1038/nature25482

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材料科学:球の表面での凝固

Freezing on a sphere p.346

Freezing on a spherical surface is shown to proceed by the sequestration of defects into 12 icosahedrally coordinated ‘seas’ that enable the formation of a crystalline ‘continent’ with long-range orientational order.

doi: 10.1038/nature25468

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気候科学:北半球の氷床地形に強制される南半球の気候変動

Southern Hemisphere climate variability forced by Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet topography p.351

An Antarctic ice core reveals that, during the last ice age, the topography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets shifted tropical Pacific convection eastward, increasing climate variability in the high southern latitudes.

doi: 10.1038/nature24669

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気候科学:最終氷期極大期から完新世までの温度変動の減少の全球分布

Global patterns of declining temperature variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene p.356

Temperature variability decreased globally by a factor of four between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene epoch, as a result of changes in the meridional temperature gradient.

doi: 10.1038/nature25454

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生態学:野外の魚類群集の変動する相互作用ネットワークと時間的に変化する安定性

Fluctuating interaction network and time-varying stability of a natural fish community p.360

A method for modelling time-varying dynamic stability in a natural marine fish community finds that seasonal patterns in community stability are driven by species diversity and interspecific interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature25504

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動物行動:カササギフエガラスにおいて、認知能力は群れのサイズと関連し適応度に影響を及ぼす

Cognitive performance is linked to group size and affects fitness in Australian magpies p.364

Wild Australian magpies (Cracticus tibicen dorsalis) living in large groups show increased cognitive performance, which is associated with increased reproductive success.

doi: 10.1038/nature25503

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神経科学:後部頭頂皮質は感覚の履歴を表現してその効果を行動に反映させる

Posterior parietal cortex represents sensory history and mediates its effects on behaviour p.368

Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information. We trained rats in an auditory parametric working memory task, and found that they displayed substantial and readily quantifiable behavioural effects of sensory-stimulus history, similar to those observed in humans and monkeys. Earlier proposals that the PPC supports working memory predict that optogenetic silencing of this region would impair behaviour in our working memory task. Contrary to this prediction, we found that silencing the PPC significantly improved performance. Quantitative analyses of behaviour revealed that this improvement was due to the selective reduction of the effects of prior sensory stimuli. Electrophysiological recordings showed that PPC neurons carried far more information about the sensory stimuli of previous trials than about the stimuli of the current trial. Furthermore, for a given rat, the more information about previous trial sensory history in the neural firing rates of the PPC, the greater the behavioural effect of sensory history, suggesting a tight link between behaviour and PPC representations of stimulus history. Our results indicate that the PPC is a central component in the processing of sensory-stimulus history, and could enable further neurobiological investigation of long-standing questions regarding how perception and working memory are affected by prior sensory information.

doi: 10.1038/nature25510

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免疫学:c-MAF依存性の制御性T細胞は腸の病原性共生生物に対する免疫寛容を仲介する

c-MAF-dependent regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance to a gut pathobiont p.373

The transcription factor c-MAF is required for the generation of Helicobacter-specific regulatory T cells that selectively restrain pro-inflammatory TH17 cells; the absence of c-MAF in mouse regulatory T cells results in pathobiont-dependent inflammatory bowel disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25500

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がん:アスパラギンの生体内での利用可能量は乳がんモデルでの転移を支配する

Asparagine bioavailability governs metastasis in a model of breast cancer p.378

In a mouse model of breast cancer, asparagine bioavailability strongly influences metastasis and this is correlated with the production of proteins that regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which provides at least one potential mechanism for how a single amino acid could regulate metastatic progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature25465

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細胞生物学:ミトコンドリア–リソソーム間の接触はRAB7 GTP加水分解を介してミトコンドリアの分裂を調節する

Mitochondria–lysosome contacts regulate mitochondrial fission via RAB7 GTP hydrolysis p.382

Formation of inter-organelle contacts between mitochondria and lysosomes, regulated by lysosomal RAB7 GTP hydrolysis, allows for bidirectional regulation of mitochondrial and lysosomal dynamics.

doi: 10.1038/nature25486

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構造生物学:DNMT3Aが仲介するDNA新生メチル化の構造基盤

Structural basis for DNMT3A-mediated de novo DNA methylation p.387

A crystal structure of DNMT3A and its regulatory partner DNMT3L bound to DNA reveals the mechanistic basis for DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation and establishes its aetiological link to human disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25477

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