Volume 554 Number 7691


AIの飛躍的な進歩を受け、Semiconductor Research Corporationが拡大して非従来型の新たなハードウエアの開発に取り組み始めたのは素晴らしい。

Big data needs a hardware revolution p.145

Artificial intelligence is driving the next wave of innovations in the semiconductor industry.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01683-1


Restore justice in Turkey p.145

Hundreds of academics and scientists are caught up in political crackdowns in the wake of petitions for peace.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01677-z

10年ごとに改訂される数学主題分類(Mathematics Subject Classification)は、じっくり時間をかけて行う価値がある。

Maths classification is getting a revision p.146

New categories of mathematics will be added to the 2020 update of the standard mathematical taxonomy.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01690-2



Debate blooms over anatomy of the world’s first flower p.153

Some researchers say that statistical prediction of the ancestral blossom yielded an unlikely structure.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01539-8


Kid co-authors in South Korea spur government probe p.154

Researchers sought to boost their children’s chances in university admissions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01512-5


UN agency targets black-carbon pollution from ships p.155

Governments are slowly advancing efforts to reduce climate and health impacts of soot.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01556-7


Bulgaria in the cold as European Union freezes its innovation funding p.156

The trading bloc has withheld two-fifths of its expected grants.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01374-x


Geneticists unravel secrets of super-invasive crayfish p.157

DNA analysis suggests the self-cloning species is a genetic hybrid that emerged in an aquarium in the 1990s.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01624-y

News Features


How decolonization could reshape South African science p.159


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01696-w

News & Views


Materials science: Wood made denser and stronger p.172


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01371-0


Cancer research: Many mutations in one clinical-trial basket p.173


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01312-x


Climate science: Fossil-fuel subsidies assessed p.175


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01495-3


Biomechanics: Evolutionary race as predators hunt prey p.176


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01278-w


Astrophysics: A chirp, a roar and a whisper p.178


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01570-9


Optical physics: Solitons divide and conquer p.179


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01470-y


Molecular biology: Smoking gun for a rare mutation mechanism p.180


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00418-6



Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala p.183

Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature25479


HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers p.189

In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature25475


Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization p.195

A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25487


Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement p.202

Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.

doi: 10.1038/nature25462



A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817 p.207

The observed electromagnetic emission from GW170817 suggests that a ‘cocoon’ of mildly relativistic material was released as a jet transferred its energy to the neutron-rich dynamical ejecta from the merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature25452


Magnetic cage and rope as the key for solar eruptions p.211

Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.

doi: 10.1038/nature24671


Isomer depletion as experimental evidence of nuclear excitation by electron capture p.216

Experimental evidence is presented for isomer depletion through nuclear excitation by electron capture in molybdenum-93 nuclei.

doi: 10.1038/nature25483


Experimental observation of Bethe strings p.219

Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.

doi: 10.1038/nature25466


Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material p.224

A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.

doi: 10.1038/nature25476


Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions p.229

Contrary to the hopes of policymakers, fossil fuel subsidy removal would have only a small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030.

doi: 10.1038/nature25467


Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China p.234

A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature25485


Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development p.239

Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.

doi: 10.1038/nature25461


Dopamine neuron activity before action initiation gates and invigorates future movements p.244

The activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta before movement initiation affects the probability and vigour of future movements.

doi: 10.1038/nature25457


High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease p.249

To facilitate clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease, which are expected to be most efficacious at the earliest and mildest stages of the disease, supportive biomarker information is necessary. The only validated methods for identifying amyloid-β deposition in the brain—the earliest pathological signature of Alzheimer’s disease—are amyloid-β positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging or measurement of amyloid-β in cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, a minimally invasive, cost-effective blood-based biomarker is desirable. Despite much effort, to our knowledge, no study has validated the clinical utility of blood-based amyloid-β markers. Here we demonstrate the measurement of high-performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. The ability of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP)669–711/amyloid-β (Aβ)1–42 and Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratios, and their composites, to predict individual brain amyloid-β-positive or -negative status was determined by amyloid-β-PET imaging and tested using two independent data sets: a discovery data set (Japan, n = 121) and a validation data set (Australia, n = 252 including 111 individuals diagnosed using 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB)-PET and 141 using other ligands). Both data sets included cognitively normal individuals, individuals with mild cognitive impairment and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. All test biomarkers showed high performance when predicting brain amyloid-β burden. In particular, the composite biomarker showed very high areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) in both data sets (discovery, 96.7%, n = 121 and validation, 94.1%, n = 111) with an accuracy approximately equal to 90% when using PIB-PET as a standard of truth. Furthermore, test biomarkers were correlated with amyloid-β-PET burden and levels of Aβ1–42 in cerebrospinal fluid. These results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of plasma biomarkers in predicting brain amyloid-β burden at an individual level. These plasma biomarkers also have cost–benefit and scalability advantages over current techniques, potentially enabling broader clinical access and efficient population screening.

doi: 10.1038/nature25456


Innate and adaptive lymphocytes sequentially shape the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism p.255

Distinct populations of lymphocytes act sequentially during development to direct maturation of the mammalian gut microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature25437


Dynamics and number of trans-SNARE complexes determine nascent fusion pore properties p.260

Analysis at high temporal and spatial resolution shows that the number and dynamics of SNARE proteins available during exocytosis determines the size and stability of fusion pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature25481

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