Generation game p.381

A Nature special issue takes on the world of tomorrow — and the decisions shaping it today.

doi: 10.1038/530381b

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Safety first p.381

t is worrying that US government departments are unable to divulge basic data on research projects involving human subjects. Such data should be publicly available to ensure volunteers’ safety.

doi: 10.1038/530381a

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Climate changes p.382

The loss of three key facilitators must not impede progress on emissions mitigation.

doi: 10.1038/530382a

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Synthetic biology’s first malaria drug meets market resistance p.389

Commercial use of genetically engineered yeast to make medicine has modest impact.

doi: 10.1038/530390a

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US cancer institute to overhaul tumour cell lines p.391

Veteran cells to be retired in favour of fresh tumour samples grown in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19364

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Satellite alerts track deforestation in real time p.392

System uses Landsat data to issue warnings just hours after tree loss is detected.

doi: 10.1038/530392a

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Polish scientists protest over plan to log in Białowieża Forest p.393

Researchers suspect motives for a planned increase in felling are commercial, but forest administration cites pest control.

doi: 10.1038/530394a

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Proposal to ban imported monkeys catches scientists off guard p.394

Australian bill provokes rush of protests ahead of parliamentary deadline.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19419

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Modern Milgram experiment sheds light on power of authority p.394

People obeying commands feel less responsibility for their actions.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19408

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News Features


Future generations p.397


doi: 10.1038/530397a

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A world where everyone has a robot: why 2040 could blow your mind p.398


doi: 10.1038/530398a

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Should you edit your children’s genes? p.402


doi: 10.1038/530402a

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News & Views


Autoimmunity: Antigen-specific immunotherapy p.422


doi: 10.1038/nature17300

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Epigenetics: A new methyl mark on messengers p.423


doi: 10.1038/530423a

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Palaeoanthropology: What teeth tell us p.425


doi: 10.1038/530425a

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Climate science: Hidden trends in the ocean carbon sink p.426


doi: 10.1038/530426a

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Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst p.427


doi: 10.1038/530427a

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Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals p.429

It is known that there was gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans around 50,000 years ago; now, analysis of a Neanderthal genome from the Altai Mountains in Siberia reveals evidence of gene flow 100,000 years ago in the other direction—from early modern humans to Neanderthals.

doi: 10.1038/nature16544

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Expanding antigen-specific regulatory networks to treat autoimmunity p.434

Nanoparticles coated with autoantigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules suppress established autoimmune disease by inducing antigen-specific TR1-like regulatory T cells in mouse and humanized mouse models.

doi: 10.1038/nature16962

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The dynamic N1-methyladenosine methylome in eukaryotic messenger RNA p.441

Here the m1A modification is discovered in messenger RNA and mapped at the transcriptome-wide level; the modification is conserved, dynamic, accumulates in structured regions around translation initiation sites upstream of the first splice site, and correlates with higher protein expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature16998

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Structural basis for activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases p.447

Crystal structures of the SET domains of MLL3 and a mutant MLL1 either unbound or complexed with domains from RBBP5 and ASH2L are determined; a combination of structural, biochemical and computational analyses reveals a two-step activation mechanism of MLL family proteins, which may be relevant for other histone methyltransferases.

doi: 10.1038/nature16952

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The host galaxy of a fast radio burst p.453

Observations of a six-day-long radio transient following a fast radio burst have yielded the host galaxy’s redshift, which, combined with the dispersion measure, provides a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium including all of the so-called ‘missing baryons’.

doi: 10.1038/nature17140

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Non-destructive state detection for quantum logic spectroscopy of molecular ions p.457

Detecting the quantum states of molecules is harder than detecting those of atoms; here, a way around this problem is found by co-trapping a molecular and an atomic ion, using the state of the atomic ion to non-destructively determine that of the molecular ion.

doi: 10.1038/nature16513

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Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature p.461

By exciting high-temperature K3C60 with mid-infrared pulses, a large increase in carrier mobility is obtained, accompanied by the opening of a gap in the optical conductivity; these same signatures are observed at equilibrium when cooling K3C60 below the superconducting transition temperature of 20 kelvin, which could be an indication of light-induced high-temperature superconductivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16522

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A pentanuclear iron catalyst designed for water oxidation p.465

A complex containing five atoms of iron is shown to be a highly efficient and robust water oxidation catalyst owing to the presence of redox flexibility, which enables charge accumulation and electron transfer, and the presence of adjacent active sites that enables intramolecular O–O bond formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16529

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Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink p.469

A climate modelling experiment is used to identify where ocean carbon uptake should change as a result of anthropogenic climate change and to distinguish these changes from internal climate variability; we may be able to detect changing uptake in some oceanic regions between 2020 and 2050, but until then, internal climate variability will preclude such detection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16958

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Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness p.473

In human societies, individuals who violate social norms may be punished by third-party observers who have not been harmed by the violator; this study suggests that a reason why the observers are willing to punish is to be seen as more trustworthy by the community.

doi: 10.1038/nature16981

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A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size p.477

The inhibitory cascade, an activator–inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth in hominins.

doi: 10.1038/nature16972

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Adult restoration of Shank3 expression rescues selective autistic-like phenotypes p.481

Re-expression of the Shank3 gene in adult mice results in improvements in synaptic protein composition and spine density in the striatum; Shank3 also rescues autism-like features such as social interaction and grooming behaviour, and the results suggest that aspects of autism spectrum disorders may be reversible in adulthood.

doi: 10.1038/nature16971

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Inhibiting fungal multidrug resistance by disrupting an activator–Mediator interaction p.485

A small molecule, inhibitor of a protein–protein interaction between the transcription factor Pdr1 and the Med15 subunit of Mediator in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, is identified and characterized here; the compound iKIX1 inhibits Pdr1-mediated gene activation and resensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models of disseminated and urinary tract infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16963

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Tumour-specific proline vulnerability uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading p.490

Tumours can require certain amino acids for their proliferation, and the diricore method described here helps to identify such restrictive amino acids; using this method in kidney cancer tissue and breast carcinoma cells, the authors observe an association between proline deficiency and upregulation of PYCR1, an enzyme required for proline synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature16982

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Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis p.495

As fruitfly epithelial cells round up during mitosis, tricellular junctions serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape directionality to orient mitosis, and promoting geometric and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature16970

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構造生物学:大腸菌由来のタイプI–E Cascade複合体における無差別的PAM認識の構造基盤

Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I–E Cascade from E. coli p.499

The structure of E. coli Cascade bound to foreign target DNA is presented, revealing the basis of the relaxed Cascade PAM recognition specificity, which results from its interaction with the minor groove, and demonstrating how a wedge in Cascade forces the directional pairing of the target strand with CRISPR RNA while stabilizing the non-target displaced strand.

doi: 10.1038/nature16995

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