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Editorials

科学技術が進歩し、包括的核実験禁止条約(CTBT)の批准に向け、機は熟した。

A secure future p.127

Research advances mean that the time is ripe to ratify the ban on testing nuclear weapons.

doi: 10.1038/529127b

英国のアルコール摂取に関する新指針は、根拠に基づく政策決定の適切な例である。

Solving the drink problem p.127

The United Kingdom's new guidelines on alcohol consumption are a sound example of evidence-based policymaking.

doi: 10.1038/529127a

Nature EnergyNature Reviews MaterialsNature Microbiologyの3誌が今週創刊。

Three new Nature journals p.128

doi: 10.1038/529128a

News

ベトナム戦死者の、DNA鑑定技術を用いた大規模な身元確認事業計画が。

Vietnam begins huge effort to identify war dead p.135

World’s largest systematic identification project will use smart DNA-testing technology.

doi: 10.1038/529135a

SARS対策で陣頭に立ち、名を上げた疫学者が、台湾の副総統になる見込みに。

Taiwan’s SARS hero poised to be vice-president p.136

Epidemiologist who spearheaded response to outbreak is a popular choice.

doi: 10.1038/529136a

エボラ出血熱の流行がようやく収束し、研究者たちは、再燃を防ごうとウイルスの自然宿主探しに本腰を。

Hunt for Ebola’s wild hideout takes off as epidemic wanes p.138

Researchers aim to prevent recurrences by finding the virus’s natural host.

doi: 10.1038/529138a

NASAのケプラー探査機の新しい系外惑星探索ミッション「K2」では、従来のミッションでは得られなかった発見が。

Rebooted Kepler spacecraft hauls in the planets p.139

Fresh worlds found by K2 mission push beyond original discoveries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19126

根拠のない批判によって、インドのニュートリノ実験施設建設計画に遅れが。

Nuclear rumours delay India’s bid for neutrino glory p.140

Rumours frustrate physicists in a global competition to understand elusive particles.

doi: 10.1038/529140a

News Features

環境:チベットの苦境

Trouble in Tibet p.142

アジアの重要な水源であるチベット草原地帯の急激な変化によって、遊牧民の生活が脅かされている。

doi: 10.1038/529142a

行動:退屈が面白くなってきた

Why boredom is anything but boring p.146

倦怠は、その言葉とは裏腹に、外傷性脳損傷から学習能力まで多くのことに関係する興味深いものであることが分かってきた。

doi: 10.1038/529146a

News & Views

マイクロバイオーム:将来に備えて繊維を摂取する

Microbiome: Fibre for the future p.158

マウスでは食物繊維が慢性的に不足していると腸内細菌の多様性が低下することが分かった。こうした影響は繊維の摂取を再開しても十分には回復せず、数世代にわたって状態は悪化し続けるのである。

doi: 10.1038/529158a

宇宙論:矮銀河からの光子は水素を破壊する

Cosmology: Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen p.159

コンパクトな星形成銀河に由来し、中性水素を電離させるのに十分なエネルギーを持つ光子が検出された。このことは、初期宇宙で第一世代の銀河が再電離した水素ガスを含むようになったかもしれない仕組みについての手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/529159a

血管生物学:内皮の持つエネルギーの転写制御

Vascular biology: Transcriptional control of endothelial energy p.160

血管形成には内皮細胞の迅速な増殖が必要である。転写因子FOXO1とMYCが血管内皮細胞の代謝と増殖を調節していることが今回明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16866

気候科学:地球は凍結を辛うじて逃れている 

Climate science: Earth's narrow escape from a big freeze p.162

氷河化が始まる時期を予測できる計算式が導かれた。この式によって、地球は新たな氷期へ入るのを辛うじて免れており、今後5万年間は氷期に入りそうもないことが確証された。

doi: 10.1038/529162a

生態学:形質に基づく研究の進む道

Ecology: A trail map for trait-based studies p.163

植物の機能形質に見られる変動と、このような形質が競争的相互作用にどのように影響するのかについての全球的評価から、将来の生態学的研究のための出発点が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16862

神経生物学:可塑性のために最大限の努力をする

Neurobiology: Pull out the stops for plasticity p.164

ニューロン間のシナプス接続を強いものにするには、強度が変動することが必要だが、変動し過ぎてもいけない。このようなシナプス可塑性の調節には複数のフィードバックループからなる複雑なカスケード反応が関わっていることを示唆する証拠が、今回得られた。

doi: 10.1038/529164a

Articles

進化生態学:植物の形態と機能の全球的スペクトル

The global spectrum of plant form and function p.167

The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other.

doi: 10.1038/nature16489

がん:がんにおけるVHL不活性化のID2依存性機構

An ID2-dependent mechanism for VHL inactivation in cancer p.172

HIFα transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer stem cells from glioma; DYRK1 kinases inhibit the protein ID2 to modulate the level of HIF2α and the tumorigenic properties of glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16475

Letters

宇宙論:コンパクトな星形成矮銀河からのライマン連続波光子の漏出は8%である

Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy p.178

Far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403 show that the galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent, which is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

doi: 10.1038/nature16456

宇宙物理学:老いた散在星における異常な高速自転の原因としての弱まった磁気制動効果

Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars p.181

The age of a young to middle-aged star can be determined from how quickly or slowly it rotates, but the relationship breaks down for old stars; models now show that old stars are rotating much more quickly than expected, perhaps because magnetic winds are weaker and therefore brake the rotation less effectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature16168

物性物理学:電場効果により二次元物質の多体状態を制御する

Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material p.185

To be able to control the properties of a system that has strong electron–electron interactions using only an external electric field would be ideal, but the material must be thin enough to avoid shielding of the electric field in the bulk material; here pure electric-field control of the charge-density wave and superconductivity transition temperatures is achieved by electrolyte gating through an electric-field double layer transistor in the two-dimensional material 1T-TiSe2.

doi: 10.1038/nature16175

高分子化学:多孔性β-シクロデキストリンポリマーによる水中の有機微量汚染物質の迅速な除去

Rapid removal of organic micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer p.190

The global occurrence in water resources of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, has raised concerns about potential negative effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Activated carbons are the most widespread adsorbent materials used to remove organic pollutants from water but they have several deficiencies, including slow pollutant uptake (of the order of hours) and poor removal of many relatively hydrophilic micropollutants. Furthermore, regenerating spent activated carbon is energy intensive (requiring heating to 500–900 degrees Celsius) and does not fully restore performance. Insoluble polymers of β-cyclodextrin, an inexpensive, sustainably produced macrocycle of glucose, are likewise of interest for removing micropollutants from water by means of adsorption. β-cyclodextrin is known to encapsulate pollutants to form well-defined host–guest complexes, but until now cross-linked β-cyclodextrin polymers have had low surface areas and poor removal performance compared to conventional activated carbons. Here we crosslink β-cyclodextrin with rigid aromatic groups, providing a high-surface-area, mesoporous polymer of β-cyclodextrin. It rapidly sequesters a variety of organic micropollutants with adsorption rate constants 15 to 200 times greater than those of activated carbons and non-porous β-cyclodextrin adsorbent materials. In addition, the polymer can be regenerated several times using a mild washing procedure with no loss in performance. Finally, the polymer outperformed a leading activated carbon for the rapid removal of a complex mixture of organic micropollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations. These findings demonstrate the promise of porous cyclodextrin-based polymers for rapid, flow-through water treatment.

doi: 10.1038/nature16185

有機化学:鉄触媒を用いた医薬化合物のトリチウム化

Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals p.195

An iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange using tritium gas is reported; the site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature16464

古気候学:過去と将来の氷期の開始を判断するための臨界日射量と二酸化炭素の関係

Critical insolation–CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception p.200

A critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide concentration is proposed and tested with simulations; it accounts for the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and predicts that the next one is unusually far off, even without the effect of anthropogenic emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature16494

植物生態学:植物の機能形質は競争に対して全球的に一貫した効果を持つ

Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition p.204

Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition.

doi: 10.1038/nature16476

古生物学:インドネシア・スラウェシ島における最古のヒト族居住

Earliest hominin occupation of Sulawesi, Indonesia p.208

New excavations in Sulawesi, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna have been recovered from stratified deposits between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, suggest that Sulawesi was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins.

doi: 10.1038/nature16448

微生物生態学:数世代の間に腸内微生物相全体で起こる、食餌に誘発される構成菌群の消滅

Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations p.212

In mice on a low microbiota-accessible carbohydrate (MAC) diet, the diversity of the gut microbiota is depleted, and the effect is transferred and compounded over generations; this phenotype is only reversed after supplementation of the missing taxa via faecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting dietary intervention alone may by insufficient at managing diseases characterized by a dysbiotic microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature16504

心血管生物学:FOXO1は血管内皮の代謝活性と増殖状態を結び付ける

FOXO1 couples metabolic activity and growth state in the vascular endothelium p.216

The transcription factor FOXO1 is identified as a crucial checkpoint of vascular growth, coupling the metabolic and proliferative activities of endothelial cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16498

免疫学:刷子細胞由来のIL-25は腸のILC2–上皮応答回路を調節する

Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2–epithelial response circuit p.221

Epithelial tuft cells are shown to be the source of intestinal interleukin (IL)-25 that is required for activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), ILC2-regulated tuft and goblet cell expansion, and control of parasite infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16161

免疫学:腸上皮刷子細胞は蠕虫性寄生生物に対する2型粘膜免疫を開始する

Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites p.226

Epithelial tuft cells secretion of IL-25 is shown to regulate type 2 epithelial responses to helminth parasite infection via an IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent feedback loop.

doi: 10.1038/nature16527

構造生物学:DNA触媒の結晶構造

Crystal structure of a DNA catalyst p.231

Both DNA and RNA molecules have been shown to exhibit catalytic activity, but only the structure of catalytic RNAs has previously been determined; here the structure of an RNA-ligating DNA in the post-catalytic state is solved.

doi: 10.1038/nature16471

構造生物学:ホロ非リボソームペプチドシンテターゼが採る2つの異なるコンホメーションの構造

Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases p.235

X-ray crystal structures of two distinct steps in the catalytic cycle of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are described, offering the potential to generate novel products through engineering enzyme activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16163

構造生物学:ホルミル化非リボソームペプチドシンテターゼの開始モジュールの合成サイクル

Synthetic cycle of the initiation module of a formylating nonribosomal peptide synthetase p.239

X-ray crystal structures are presented of each major step of the assembly-line synthesis by the initiation module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) LgrA; the structures reveal large conformational changes, demonstrating a requirement for NRPSs to be very dynamic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16503

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