目次

Editorial

健康、教育、国際的開発といった公共政策を、証拠に基づいて評価する手段として、ランダム化比較試験をはじめとした科学的手法が役立っている。

Science in the community p.135

Randomized controlled trials are providing evidence about interventions in health, education and international development, but they are only part of a suite of useful tools.

doi: 10.1038/524135a

News

日本の川内原発が再稼働し、二酸化炭素排出削減に期待が。

Japan’s nuclear revival won’t lower carbon emissions enough p.143

Return to nuclear energy is part of a plan that is not in line with global climate target.

doi: 10.1038/524143a

2004年に開始したアフリカのミレニアム・ビレッジ・プロジェクトが、当初10年間の効果を評価へ。

Millennium Villages Project launches retrospective analysis p.144

Anti-poverty programme seeks to gauge success after ten years in Africa.

doi: 10.1038/524144a

米国の反遺伝子組換え(GM)活動家たちが、公立大学研究者とバイオ企業との関係の詳しい調査を。

GM-crop opponents expand probe into ties between scientists and industry p.145

Activist group compels records from 40 researchers at US public universities.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18146

今後のエボラウイルス研究に役立てようと、各地に散らばる試料を集めるバイオバンク計画が。

Proposed Ebola biobank would strengthen African science p.146

International public-health officials discuss how to maximize research benefits of a widely dispersed collection.

doi: 10.1038/524146a

来るべきニュートリノ研究の時代へ向けた、図解ガイド。

Age of the neutrino: Plans to decipher mysterious particle take shape p.148

A graphical guide to four giant experiments spread across the world.

doi: 10.1038/524148a

News Features

社会政策:ランダミスタの反乱

Can randomized trials eliminate global poverty? p.150

新世代の経済学者たちは、ランダム化比較試験を活用することで、世界的な開発政策を改革しようとしている。

doi: 10.1038/524150a

News & Views

有機化学:触媒被毒を防ぐ方法

Organic chemistry: A cure for catalyst poisoning p.164

空気の成分に敏感に反応する化合物は、必要な反応条件を整えるのに手間が掛かるため、化学反応に用いるのが難しい。この問題について、簡単で実用的な解決法がついに考案された。

doi: 10.1038/524164a

再生生物学:肝臓の量を維持する

Regenerative biology: Maintaining liver mass p.165

これまであまり評価されていなかった肝細胞集団の1つが、マウスで肝臓の質量を維持して日々の変動を防ぐのに関わっていることが分かった。この細胞群は近傍の静脈からのシグナルによって誘導され、維持されている。

doi: 10.1038/nature15201

DNA複製:DNA鎖の分離の仕組みを解明

DNA replication: Strand separation unravelled p.166

DNA二重らせんが複製されるには、まずそれをほどいて一本ずつの鎖にしなくてはならない。この作業を行う酵素であるMcm2–7ヘリカーゼの構造から、この解裂過程が開始される仕組みについて、初めての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14643

素粒子物理学:物質と反物質を詳細に調べる

Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized p.168

陽子と反陽子の電荷質量比の違いが、これまでなかった精密さで調べられ、物理学の基本的対称性の妥当性に対する厳密な限界が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/524168a

分子生物学:2つなくてはほぐせない

Molecular biology: It takes two to untangle p.169

酵母はタンパク質の凝集を解消するのにHsp104という酵素を必要とする。この酵素はストレスを受けたり、老化したりした細胞中に出現する。動物にはHsp104がなく、その代わりに分子シャペロンのDNAJファミリーに属するタンパク質がこの役割を担っている。

doi: 10.1038/nature14640

寿命:さらなる長寿命につながる道を探す

Longevity: Mapping the path to a longer life p.170

細胞内シグナル伝達経路の中で、インスリンやインスリン様増殖因子によって誘導されるPI3K経路を阻害すると寿命を延ばすことができる。ショウジョウバエではRASが関わる経路の阻害も寿命を延長するという知見は、老化防止薬の新しい標的を示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/524170a

Analysis

構造生物学:GPCRによるGα活性化のための普遍的なアロステリック機構

Universal allosteric mechanism for Gα activation by GPCRs p.173

There are ~800 human GPCRs and 16 different Gα proteins; this study revealed the molecular details of Gα activation by GPCRs and suggests that a universal activation mechanism governs Gα activation—the details of this mechanism can explain how the GPCR–Gα system diversified rapidly, while conserving the allosteric activation mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14663

Articles

細胞生物学:自己複製する二倍体Axin2+細胞は肝臓の恒常的再生を促進する

Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver p.180

In the uninjured liver, a population of self-renewing, diploid hepatocytes is identified near the central vein; these cells respond to Wnt signals that are provided by the adjacent central vein endothelial cells, and can give rise to all other hepatocytes to maintain liver homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14863

構造生物学:真核生物MCM複合体の分解能3.8 Åでの構造

Structure of the eukaryotic MCM complex at 3.8 Å p.186

Cryo-electron microscopy is used to visualize the double hexamer of the eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM), which is assembled during the G1 phase of DNA replication; two interdigitated hexamers have a central channel that tightly fits a DNA duplex, and the orientation of the tilted single hexamers sheds light on many functional aspects, particularly in the initial origin DNA melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature14685

Letters

宇宙論:宇宙のクモの巣構造に関連した巨大な原始銀河円盤

A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web p.192

A two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of a large, luminous filament of the cosmic web near QSO UM287 reveals that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a 1013-solar-mass dark-matter halo, with a geometry that is strongly suggestive of cold flow accretion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14616

核物理学:陽子に対する反陽子の電荷質量比の高精度比較

High-precision comparison of the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio OPEN p.196

The CPT theorem (the assumption that physical laws are invariant under simultaneous charge conjugation, parity transformation and time reversal) is central to the standard model of particle physics; here the charge-to-mass ratio of the antiproton is compared to that of the proton, with a precision of 69 parts per trillion, and the result supports the CPT theorem at the atto-electronvolt scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature14861

材料科学:非アフィン熱ひずみによる金属ガラスの構造若返り

Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain p.200

This study shows that metallic glasses can be rejuvenated (taken to higher energy states with more plasticity) by thermally cycling them at relatively low temperatures (well below the glass transition temperature); this is attributed to the effect of intrinsic structural inhomogeneities in the glassy state, which translate into localized internal strains as the temperature is cycled and the different regions expand and contract by different amounts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14674

ナノスケール材料:グラフェンの切り紙

Graphene kirigami p.204

The ratio of in-plane stiffness to out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene is shown to be similar to that of a piece of paper, which allows ideas from kirigami (a variation of origami that allows cutting) to be applied to micrometre-scale graphene sheets to build mechanically stretchable yet robust electrodes, springs and hinges.

doi: 10.1038/nature14588

合成:敏感な試薬をカプセル化して投入することで合成にグローブボックスが不要になる

Dosage delivery of sensitive reagents enables glove-box-free synthesis p.208

A method of supplying exactly the amounts of air- and moisture-sensitive catalysts and ligands needed for three commonly used syntheses in a stable, storable form in a sealed capsule is described; it should reduce the unnecessary waste of chemicals, money and time.

doi: 10.1038/nature14654

地球力学:平らなスラブの形成と長寿命に対する海嶺の役割

The role of ridges in the formation and longevity of flat slabs p.212

Flat-slab subduction is often proposed to cause deformation of continental crust far from plate boundaries as well as unusual patterns of volcanism; a study of the largest-known flat slab, located in Peru, now shows that the ridge is necessary for the formation and longevity of the flat slab, whereas other contributing factors such as trench retreat and suction alone will not suffice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14648

集団遺伝学:ネアンデルタール人を近い祖先に持つルーマニアの初期現生人類

An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor p.216

Analysis of DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old modern human from Romania reveals that 6–9% of the genome is derived from Neanderthals, with the individual having a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back.

doi: 10.1038/nature14558

進化学:タコのゲノムと頭足類の神経や形態の新機軸の進化

The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties OPEN p.220

Octopus bimaculoides genome and transcriptome sequencing demonstrated that a core gene repertoire broadly similar to that of other invertebrate bilaterians is accompanied by expansions in the protocadherin and C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor families and large-scale genome rearrangements closely associated with octopus-specific transposable elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14668

遺伝学:ヒト疾患を引き起こす変異のシス作用性抑制を比較ゲノミクスによって同定

Identification of cis-suppression of human disease mutations by comparative genomics p.225

Patterns of amino acid conservation have been used to guide the interpretation of the disease-causing potential of genetic variants in patients; now, an appreciable fraction of pathogenic alleles are shown to be fixed in the genomes of other species, suggesting that the genomic context has an important role in allele pathogenicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14497

遺伝学:遺伝的補償は有害変異によって誘導されるが、遺伝子ノックダウンでは誘導されない

Genetic compensation induced by deleterious mutations but not gene knockdowns p.230

Zebrafish embryos injected with egfl7 morpholino exhibit severe vascular defects but egfl7 mutants do not show any obvious phenotypes, illustrating the power of comparing mutants and morphants to identify modifier genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14580

遺伝学:ミトコンドリアDNA疾患患者由来の多能性細胞における代謝の救済

Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease p.234

Mutations in mitochondrial (mt)DNA are associated with severe disorders for which treatment is currently limited; this study shows that mtDNA mutations can be genetically corrected and normal metabolic function restored in cells derived from patients with mtDNA disease and reprogrammed to pluripotency through factor-mediated reprogramming or via a somatic cell nuclear transfer approach.

doi: 10.1038/nature14546

細胞生物学:ライブ画像化RNAiスクリーニングで明らかになった哺乳類卵母細胞の減数分裂に必須の遺伝子

Live imaging RNAi screen reveals genes essential for meiosis in mammalian oocytes p.239

A high-content phenotypic screening method has been developed allowing the first systematic RNA interference screen for nearly 800 genes mediating mammalian meiosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14568

細胞生物学:CREBコアクチベーターであるCRTC2はSREBP1の調節により肝臓脂質代謝を制御している

The CREB coactivator CRTC2 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating SREBP1 p.243

Studies in mice reveal that CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) acts as a mediator of mTOR signalling in the liver to regulate SREBP1-controlled lipid homeostasis during feeding and diabetes; overexpression of a CRTC2 mutant defective for mTOR regulation improves the lipogenic program and insulin sensitivity in obese mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14557

生化学:重要なHSP70補助シャペロン複合体は、後生動物でのタンパク質脱凝集を活性化する

Crucial HSP70 co-chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation p.247

An efficient protein disaggregation system uncovered in metazoan cells requires transient interactions between J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B, which synergistically boost HSP70-dependent disaggregation activity, providing a flexible further level of regulation for metazoan protein quality control, with direct relevance to human diseases such as age-related neurodegeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature14884

構造生物学:哺乳類のステアロイルCoAデサチュラーゼのX線構造

X-ray structure of a mammalian stearoyl-CoA desaturase p.252

The crystal structure of mouse SCD1 bound to fatty acid stearoyl-CoA is solved at 2.6 Å resolution; the structure reveals a novel geometry for the dimetal centre, and the acyl chain of the bound fatty acid is shown to be shielded and shaped to a particular conformation by the enzyme, providing a structural basis for the selectivity of fatty acid metabolism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14549

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