Volume 524 Number 7565



Portfolio boost p.265

People who fund or manage many research projects could do it better with mindful analysis.

doi: 10.1038/524265b


Rise of the citizen scientist p.265

From the oceans to the soil, technology is changing the part that amateurs can play in research. But this greater involvement raises concerns that must be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/524265a



Greek bailout set to free up research funds p.273

Research minister says two chunks of money from the European Union can now be released.

doi: 10.1038/524273a


Ebola spurs creation of Japan's first maximum-security biolab p.274

Fears about the virus helped forge deal to elevate existing facility to BSL-4 status.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18179


Most gay and lesbian researchers are out in the lab p.275

Fields with more women found to be more welcoming.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18187


China’s carbon emissions overestimated p.276

Analysis could force climate scientists to revisit estimates of global cycle.

doi: 10.1038/524276a


Superconductivity record sparks wave of follow-up physics p.277

Researchers strive to reproduce and understand landmark result.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18191


Chinese biologists lead outcry over Winter Olympics ski site p.278

Proposed alpine ski area lies within nature reserve, prompting fears of development in other conservation areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18174

News Features


The cannabis experiment p.280


doi: 10.1038/524280a

News & Views


Cell biology: Tagged tags engage disposal p.294


doi: 10.1038/nature15199


Dengue virus: Bumps in the road to therapeutic antibodies p.295


doi: 10.1038/524295a


Organic chemistry: Light opens pathways for nickel catalysis p.297


doi: 10.1038/nature15200


Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear p.298


doi: 10.1038/nature14641


Biodiversity: Multiple origins of mountain life p.300


doi: 10.1038/nature14645


Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole p.301


doi: 10.1038/524301a



Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors p.303

This study describes the long-awaited crystal structures for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) heterodimers, including complexes bound to small molecules and DNA; the HIF–ARNT architecture is distinct from the bHLH-PAS-containing CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer, and HIF mutations linked to cancer can be mapped to important structural regions, with the structures providing future reference for small-molecule drug discovery efforts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14883


The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy p.309

The PINK1 ubiquitin kinase is shown to recruit the two autophagy receptors NDP52 and OPTN to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of the ubiquitin ligase parkin; once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and OPTN recruit autophagy initiation components, and parkin may amplify the phospho-ubiquitin signal generated by PINK1, resulting in robust autophagy induction.

doi: 10.1038/nature14893


Structural insights into µ-opioid receptor activation p.315

X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations of the μ-opioid receptor reveal the conformational changes in the extracellular and intracellular domains of this G-protein-coupled receptor that are associated with its activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14886



Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles p.322

Gas-giant planets are widely thought to form from solid ‘cores’ of roughly ten Earth masses; simulations now show that such cores can be produced from ‘pebbles’ (centimetre-to-metre-sized objects) provided that the pebbles form sufficiently slowly, leading to the formation of one to four gas giants in agreement with the observed structure of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature14675


Measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate p.325

A position sensor is demonstrated that is capable of resolving the zero-point motion of a nanomechanical oscillator in the timescale of its thermal decoherence; it achieves an imprecision that is four orders of magnitude below that at the standard quantum limit and is used to feedback-cool the oscillator to a mean photon number of five.

doi: 10.1038/nature14672


Switching on elusive organometallic mechanisms with photoredox catalysis p.330

Despite advances in carbon–carbon fragment couplings, the ability to forge carbon–oxygen bonds in a general fashion via nickel catalysis has been largely unsuccessful; here, visible-light-excited photoredox catalysts are shown to provide transient access to Ni(iii) species that readily participate in reductive elimination, leading to carbon–oxygen coupling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14875


Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China p.335

A revised estimate of Chinese carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement production is presented, based on updated energy consumption and clinker production data and two new sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal.

doi: 10.1038/nature14677


Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds p.339

Geochemical data from inclusions within diamonds from the Northwest Territories, Canada, indicate that saline fluids are parental to silicic and carbonatitic deep mantle melts, via fluid–rock interaction; a subducting plate under western North America is suggested to be the source of the fluids.

doi: 10.1038/nature14857


Reconstructing the reproductive mode of an Ediacaran macro-organism p.343

The Ediacaran macrofossil Fractofusus reveals a complex life history of multigenerational, stolon-like asexual reproduction, interspersed with dispersal of waterborne propagules.

doi: 10.1038/nature14646


Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain p.347

Investigating the evolutionary origins of montane biodiversity by sampling the entire biota from a single mountain, Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, allows for a better understanding not only of the origins of endemism, but also of this biota’s forecasted response to environmental change.

doi: 10.1038/nature14949


A self-organized biomechanical network drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis p.351

Feedbacks between the dissociation and advection of myosin II result in self-organized behaviour of actomyosin networks that drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14603


The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia p.356

Zinc transporter ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types in remodelled mammalian pulmonary arterioles in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

doi: 10.1038/nature14620


Transcriptional control of autophagy–lysosome function drives pancreatic cancer metabolism p.361

The MiT/TFE family of transcription factors is found to coordinate constitutive activation of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis to drive the metabolic programming and malignant growth of pancreatic cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14587


Energetic coupling between plastids and mitochondria drives CO2 assimilation in diatoms p.366

Diatoms optimize their photosynthetic efficiency via extensive energetic exchanges between plastids and mitochondria.

doi: 10.1038/nature14599


Mechanism of phospho-ubiquitin-induced PARKIN activation p.370

This study provides insights into conformational changes that lead to phospho-ubiquitin-induced PARKIN activation and how PARKIN is recruited to phospho-ubiquitin chains on mitochondria; the crystal structure of PARKIN in complex with phospho-ubiquitin also indicates that the pocket within PARKIN where phospho-ubiquitin binds carries amino acid residues that are mutated in patients with autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14879


Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation p.375

NMR spectroscopy reveals the conformational changes of the μ-opioid receptor that are associated with receptor activation, helping to explain why the allosteric coupling between the agonist-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling interface of this receptor is relatively weak.

doi: 10.1038/nature14680

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