目次

Editorials

がんゲノム解読は大きな成果を上げており、今後は機能研究も含め、バランスのとれたがん遺伝学研究を目指すべきだ。

Cancer crossroads p.287

Efforts to understand cancer genomes should take on a fresh focus.

doi: 10.1038/508287b

ヨーロッパでは、前回から1年も経たずに幹細胞研究規制の見直しが求められており、これは民主的理念に基づいたものとはいえ、時間と金の無駄である。

The democracy carousel p.287

Europe's re-examination of stem-cell rules is a waste of time and money.

doi: 10.1038/508287a

英政府が、Aレベル試験(高等教育修了一般試験)で実技を評価しない方針を打ち出したが、これは科学の実技を軽視する誤った改革だ。

Practical nonsense p.288

Downgrading practical science will impede UK students in the global workplace

doi: 10.1038/508288a

News

近年認可された薬剤によってC型肝炎ウイルスの除去率が高まってきたが、その高過ぎる薬剤が途上国にとって課題に。

Hepatitis C drugs not reaching poor p.295

Treatment guidelines for virus highlight challenge of paying for expensive drugs in low-income countries.

doi: 10.1038/508295a

ストレスによってマウス精子におけるマイクロRNA発現が変化し、その変化はさらに次世代にも伝わって行動を変化させることが明らかに。

Sperm RNA carries marks of trauma p.296

Stress alters the expression of small RNAs in male mice and leads to depressive behaviours in later generations.

doi: 10.1038/508296a

高エネルギーγ線の捕捉を目指すTCA(チェレンコフ望遠鏡アレイ)計画が、建設候補地の絞り込みを。

Panel homes in on sites for γ-ray detector p.297

Cherenkov Telescope Array will track high-energy photons to probe black holes, dark matter and relativity.

doi: 10.1038/508297a

IPCC(気候変動に関する政府間パネル)の報告書に、排出削減の実際的アドバイスに欠けると、批判が。

IPCC report under fire p.298

Critics attack panel’s lack of specific guidance on how countries should lower emissions.

doi: 10.1038/508298a

STAP細胞の不正問題をめぐり、筆頭著者が会見で反論を。

Biologist defiant over stem-cell method p.299

Japanese author of controversial papers denies wrongdoing and stands by results as testing of her protocol begins.

doi: 10.1038/508299a

数多くのキューブサット(超小型人工衛星)が打ち上げられるようになっており、その大きな科学的可能性に期待が。

Mini satellites prove their scientific power p.300

Proliferation of ‘CubeSats’ offers fresh and fast way to gather space data.

doi: 10.1038/508300a

News Features

海洋からの力:青いエネルギー

Power from the oceans: Blue energy p.302

潮流発電の開発は長年停滞していたが、実用化に向け、大きく流れが変わってきた。

doi: 10.1038/508302a

毒物学:プラスチックの難題

Toxicology: The plastics puzzle p.306

プラスチックの成分であるビスフェノールA(BPA)は、毒性が疑われて大きな騒ぎになったが、それに代わる物質も解決策にはならない可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/508306a

News & Views

進化生物学:チンパンジー系統の年代付け

Evolutionary biology: Dating chimpanzees p.322

雄チンパンジーの系統を過去数千年にわたり追跡する遺伝学的研究によって、我々と近縁のこの霊長類の行動の長期的進化を研究する道が開かれた。

doi: 10.1038/508322a

遺伝学:ダウン症候群での遺伝子発現

Genetics: Up and down in Down's syndrome p.323

1人だけがダウン症候群を発症した一卵性双生児の比較研究から、患者の方では遺伝子発現レベルの差がゲノム全体にわたって小さくなっていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/508323a

有機化学:進撃の触媒

Organic chemistry: Catalysis marches on p.324

確立されている化学反応を見直すことで、有機合成分野でのずっと以前からの問題の答え、つまり第四級立体中心と呼ばれる炭素を持つ単一の鏡像異性体群を作り出す方法が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13225

合成生物学:同期している生物回路

Synthetic biology: Biocircuits in synchrony p.326

細胞の生物回路の設計が大きく進歩した。このような回路では細胞自身のタンパク質分解系を再利用して2つの合成モジュールの発現を細菌集団全体にわたって同期させている。

doi: 10.1038/nature13224

熱電気:みにくいアヒルの子

Thermoelectricity: The ugly duckling p.327

セレン化スズの単結晶は、高温状態の結晶軸方向の1つに沿って、バルクのどんな材料よりも高い熱電効率を示すことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/508327a

細胞生物学:微生物からのストレス

Cell biology: The stressful influence of microbes p.328

細胞のストレス応答の研究によって、細胞内小区画であるミトコンドリアが周囲の代謝産物や微生物についての情報を使って、自身が損傷を受けないように防御する仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13220

Review

生化学:アロステリーのアンサンブル的性質

The ensemble nature of allostery p.331

Allostery is the process by which biological macromolecules transmit the effect of binding at one site to another, often distal, functional site, allowing for the regulation of activity; here facilitation of allostery through dynamic and intrinsically disordered proteins is discussed, and a framework to unify the description of allosteric mechanisms for different systems is proposed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13001

Articles

有機化学:遠隔第四級立体中心のエナンチオ選択的構築

Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres p.340

A catalytic and enantioselective intermolecular Heck-type reaction of trisubstituted-alkenyl alcohols with aryl boronic acids provides direct access to quaternary stereocentres remote from a carbonyl group.

doi: 10.1038/nature13231

遺伝学:ダウン症候群のゲノム全体に見られる遺伝子発現調節異常ドメイン

Domains of genome-wide gene expression dysregulation in Down’s syndrome p.345

By studying the transcriptome of fetal cells of monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 21, this paper finds that differential expression between the twins is organized in domains along all chromosomes; these gene expression dysregulation domains are conserved in the mouse model of Down’s syndrome and correlate with the lamina-associated domains and replication domains.

doi: 10.1038/nature13200

神経科学:脳幹核MdVは熟練を要する前肢運動課題を仲介する

Brainstem nucleus MdV mediates skilled forelimb motor tasks p.351

The authors use a combination of viral tracing and genetics to characterize the diversity of neurons projecting from mouse brainstem to motor neurons that control limb movements; in particular they discover that the medullary reticular formation ventral part (MdV) is functionally specialized for skilled forelimb motor control.

doi: 10.1038/nature13023

神経科学:熟練を要する到達運動はV2a脊髄固有ニューロンの内部コピー回路を基盤とする

Skilled reaching relies on a V2a propriospinal internal copy circuit p.357

Cervical propriospinal neurons (PNs) form a genetically accessible subclass of V2a interneurons that convey both premotor output and precerebellar copy signals; their ablation in mice impairs reaching movements selectively, and activation of their internal copy projection recruits a rapid cerebellar feedback loop that modulates forelimb movement.

doi: 10.1038/nature13021

Letters

地球化学:火星の大気化学と深部硫黄循環との間をつなぐ同位体

Isotopic links between atmospheric chemistry and the deep sulphur cycle on Mars p.364

Isotopic analyses of 40 Martian meteorites indicate that assimilation of sulphur into Martian magmas was a common occurrence throughout much of the planet’s history and that the atmospheric imprint of photochemical processing preserved in Martian meteoritic sulphide and sulphate is distinct from that observed in terrestrial analogues.

doi: 10.1038/nature13175

物理:超伝導準粒子に起因する電磁散逸のコヒーレント抑制

Coherent suppression of electromagnetic dissipation due to superconducting quasiparticles p.369

The long-predicted suppression of quasiparticle dissipation in a Josephson junction when the phase difference across the junction is π is inferred from a sharp maximum in the energy relaxation time of a superconducting artificial atom.

doi: 10.1038/nature13017

材料:SnSe結晶における非常に低い熱伝導率と高い熱電性能指数

Ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit in SnSe crystals p.373

The main obstacle to improving the thermoelectric efficiency of a material arises from the common interdependence of electrical and thermal conductivity, whereas one ideally wants to raise the former while lowering the latter: a simple layered crystalline material — SnSe — is now reported that seems to have these qualities built in.

doi: 10.1038/nature13184

気候科学:過去55万年間にわたる中緯度域の半球間の水文学的シーソー

Mid-latitude interhemispheric hydrologic seesaw over the past 550,000 years p.378

Tropical and subtropical speleothems show that the latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone tends to produce increased precipitation in one hemisphere and drying in the other; now it is shown using speleothems from the Korean peninsula that this phenomenon extended to the mid-latitudes during the past 550,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13076

進化:ハクジラ類の反響定位の起源の古さを裏付ける新たな化石種

A new fossil species supports an early origin for toothed whale echolocation p.383

Phylogenetic analysis of a new species of fossil toothed whale, Cotylocara mace, from the Oligocene epoch places it in a basal clade of odontocetes, and its features suggest that rudimentary echolocation evolved in the early Oligocene and was followed by convergent evolution in their skulls.

doi: 10.1038/nature13086

システム生物学:遺伝子回路の迅速かつ調整可能な翻訳後連結

Rapid and tunable post-translational coupling of genetic circuits p.387

Protease competition is used to produce rapid and tunable coupling of genetic circuits, enabling a coupled clock network that can encode independent environmental cues into a single time series output, a form of frequency multiplexing in a genetic circuit context.

doi: 10.1038/nature13238

発生生物学:頂端収縮は組織規模での流体力学的流動を生み出して細胞の伸長を調整する

Apical constriction drives tissue-scale hydrodynamic flow to mediate cell elongation p.392

The lengthening phase of ventral furrow formation in Drosophila gastrulation is driven by cytoplasmic flows triggered by apical constriction of mesoderm cells independent of the mechanical inputs from the basolateral membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13070

免疫:自然リンパ球に運命拘束された前駆細胞

A committed precursor to innate lymphoid cells p.397

A committed precursor to innate lymphoid cell lineages, but not classical natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer cells, is derived from common lymphoid precursors and distinguished by high levels of expression of the transcription factor PLZF.

doi: 10.1038/nature13047

医学:新規広域スペクトルヌクレオシド類似体BCX4430によるフィロウイルス感染症の防御

Protection against filovirus diseases by a novel broad-spectrum nucleoside analogue BCX4430 p.402

A broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule is reported to act as an inhibitor of viral polymerase activity and is shown to be effective in protecting non-human primates from lethal filovirus infection when administered after exposure.

doi: 10.1038/nature13027

細胞生物学:Caenorhabditis elegansでミトコンドリアを監視し守る経路

Caenorhabditis elegans pathways that surveil and defend mitochondria p.406

A genome-wide RNA interference screen in Caenorhabditis elegans identifies 45 genes with roles in protective pathways following drug- and genetic-disruption-induced mitochondrial inhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature13204

植物科学:シロイヌナズナではエピジェネティックに活性化されたsiRNAがmiRNAによってトランスポゾンから広範に誘導される

miRNAs trigger widespread epigenetically activated siRNAs from transposons in Arabidopsis p.411

The generation of widespread epigenetically activated short interfering RNAs by the targeting of microRNAs to transposon transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana is shown to be a latent mechanism that only becomes active when the transcripts are epigenetically reactivated, for example, during reprogramming of the germ line.

doi: 10.1038/nature13069

構造生物学:AddABヘリカーゼ–ヌクレアーゼ複合体による転座とそのχ部位での停止の構造基盤

Structural basis for translocation by AddAB helicase–nuclease and its arrest at χ sites p.416

In bacterial cells, processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination is dependent upon the recombination hotspot sequence χ (Chi) and is catalysed by either an AddAB- or RecBCD-type helicase–nuclease (reviewed in refs 3, 4). These enzyme complexes unwind and digest the DNA duplex from the broken end until they encounter a χ sequence, whereupon they produce a 3′ single-stranded DNA tail onto which they initiate loading of the RecA protein. Consequently, regulation of the AddAB/RecBCD complex by χ is a key control point in DNA repair and other processes involving genetic recombination. Here we report crystal structures of Bacillus subtilis AddAB in complex with different χ-containing DNA substrates either with or without a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue. Comparison of these structures suggests a mechanism for DNA translocation and unwinding, suggests how the enzyme binds specifically to χ sequences, and explains how χ recognition leads to the arrest of AddAB (and RecBCD) translocation that is observed in single-molecule experiments.

doi: 10.1038/nature13037

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度