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Editorials

イタリアのカンパニア州の不法なゴミ投棄が健康被害を生んでいる恐れがあり、最新の手法を用いた調査が必要だ。

A toxic legacy p.431

Illegal dumping of toxic waste in the Italian Campania has been blamed for high rates of ill health in the region. The suspected link needs to be investigated using the most modern methods.

doi: 10.1038/508431a

米国は患者の健康データシステム作りを計画しているが、慎重に進めることが重要だ。

Take care p.432

The United States must tread carefully when building a health-data system.

doi: 10.1038/508432b

SOFIA計画から手を引くというNASAの決定は、共同計画のパートナーとしてのNASAの信頼性をゆるがせる。

A question of trust p.432

NASA’s decision to renege on SOFIA project casts doubts over its reliability as a partner.

doi: 10.1038/508432a

News

インフルエンザのパンデミックに備えたタミフル備蓄を疑問視する報告に、研究者から批判の声が。

Tamiflu report comes under fire p.439

Conclusions on stockpiling of antiviral drugs challenged.

doi: 10.1038/508439a

4月1日にチリ沖で発生した地震の規模は予想よりも小さく、科学者たちが、強い地震応力と揺れの法則の再検証へ。

Chile quake defies expectations p.440

Smaller-than-expected tremor has scientists scrambling to redefine rules for areas of extreme seismic stress.

doi: 10.1038/508440a

安全性の極めて高い量子通信ネットワークが、実験段階から「現実世界」へ。

Quantum communications leap out of the lab p.441

China begins work on super-secure network as ‘real-world’ trial successfully sends quantum keys and data.

doi: 10.1038/508441a

送達技術が改善され、肝臓関連の疾患に対する有望な治療結果が得られたことで、RNA干渉に再び脚光が。

RNA interference rebooted p.443

Gene-silencing technique yields promising treatments for liver-linked disorders.

doi: 10.1038/508443a

News Features

気候変動:デザイナー・リーフ

Climate-change adaptation: Designer reefs p.444

生物学者たちが、気候変動に対処できるよう、サンゴの進化の手助けを試みている。

doi: 10.1038/508444a

再生可能エネルギー:バイオ燃料が熱い

Renewable energy: Biofuels heat up p.448

英国で建設中の新世代のバイオ燃料工場では、トウモロコシの茎から都会のゴミまで、ほぼあらゆる有機廃棄物から液体燃料の生産が可能になる。

doi: 10.1038/508448a

News & Views

電気化学:境界で働く触媒

Electrochemistry: Catalysis at the boundaries p.460

銅を用いている材料は、電気を使って一酸化炭素と水をエタノールに変換する効率が高いことが明らかになった。この発見は液体燃料の形での再生可能エネルギーの貯蔵に向かう大きな進歩といえる。

doi: 10.1038/nature13226

感覚系:音でものを「見る」

Sensory systems: Do you hear what I see? p.461

視覚障害者の脳での聴覚あるいは触覚情報の表現は、晴眼者での視覚情報の表現法とよく似ていることを示す証拠が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/508461a

感染生物学:かじられて死ぬ

Infection biology: Nibbled to death p.462

1つの細胞が別の細胞を食いちぎる過程であるトロゴサイトーシスは、これまで免疫系の細胞でのみ観察されてきた。だが今回、この現象が赤痢アメーバで見つかり、この寄生性病原体が宿主細胞を殺す方法の1つとなっていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13223

遺伝学:生命を支えるY染色体

Genetics: The vital Y chromosome p.463

多様な哺乳類に由来するY染色体塩基配列の比較から、この染色体の進化の初期には大量の遺伝子が失われたが、現存種のY染色体では、全体に遺伝子の安定性が非常に高いことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/508463a

気候科学:古代の貝殻から推定される海水準

Climate science: Sea levels from ancient seashells p.465

海水中の酸素同位体組成は、全球平均海水準の変動と相関している。酸素同位体シグナルが観察される微化石を使って、海水準記録が500万年前にまでさかのぼって推定された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13328

生殖生物学:精子のタンパク質と結合する受容体の発見

Reproductive biology: Sperm protein finds its mate p.466

哺乳類での受精の際に精子が卵に付着するのに必要とされる精子特異的タンパク質はすでに知られており、これが卵の細胞膜にあるこのタンパク質の受容体の発見につながった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13227

Perspective

遺伝:ヒト疾患と配列変異の因果関係を研究するためのガイドライン

Guidelines for investigating causality of sequence variants in human disease OPEN p.469

Acceleration in discovery of rare genetic variants possibly linked with disease may mean an increased risk of false-positive reports of causality; this Perspective proposes guidelines to distinguish disease-causing sequence variants from the many potentially functional variants in a human genome, and to assess confidence in their pathogenicity, and highlights priority areas for development.

doi: 10.1038/nature13127

Articles

気候科学:過去530万年間にわたる海水準と深海の水温の変動

Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years p.477

A novel approach to the estimation of sea level and deep-sea temperature has been used to determine these quantities over the past 5.3 million years; this approach, based on oxygen isotope records from the eastern Mediterranean, shows that temperature and sea-level histories are broadly correlated but also show intriguing temporal offsets.

doi: 10.1038/nature13230

生殖生物学:Junoは卵にあるIzumo受容体で、哺乳類の受精に必須である

Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilization p.483

The egg receptor for Izumo, a sperm cell-surface protein required for male fertility, is identified here and renamed Juno; these findings show that the Izumo–Juno interaction is conserved within mammals, and open new opportunities for the development of fertility treatments and contraceptives.

doi: 10.1038/nature13203

遺伝学:Y染色体の哺乳類全体にわたる起源と機能的進化

Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals p.488

Using high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, Y chromosome evolution across 15 representative mammals is explored, with results providing evidence for three independent sex chromosome originations in mammals and birds.

doi: 10.1038/nature13151

遺伝学:哺乳類のY染色体には幅広く発現する遺伝子量感受性調節因子が保持されている

Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators p.494

A study comparing the Y chromosome across mammalian species reveals that selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X–Y gene pairs preserved a handful of genes on the Y chromosome while the rest were lost; the survival of broadly expressed dosage-sensitive regulators of gene expression suggest that the human Y chromosome is essential for male viability.

doi: 10.1038/nature13206

Letters

量子物理科学:フォールトトレランスのための表面コードしきい値の超伝導量子回路

Superconducting quantum circuits at the surface code threshold for fault tolerance p.500

A universal set of logic gates in a superconducting quantum circuit is shown to have gate fidelities at the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum computing by the surface code approach, in which the quantum bits are distributed in an array of planar topology and have only nearest-neighbour couplings.

doi: 10.1038/nature13171

化学:酸化物由来ナノ結晶銅上での一酸化炭素の液体燃料への電解還元

Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper p.504

The electrochemical conversion of CO and H2O into liquid fuel is made feasible at modest potentials with the use of oxide-derived nanocystalline Cu as the catalyst.

doi: 10.1038/nature13249

地球:高速で拡大する海嶺における浅部の軸上と深部の軸から離れた混成熱水循環

Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast-spreading ridges p.508

High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of hydrothermal flow beneath fast-spreading ridges predict two interacting flow components — shallow on-axis flow and deeper off-axis flow — that merge to feed axial vent sites, reconciling previously incompatible models favouring only one flow component.

doi: 10.1038/nature13174

地球:プレートテクトニクス、損傷および継承

Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance p.513

Lithospheric damage, combined with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, is proposed to explain the apparent emergence of plate tectonics three billion years ago; modelling confirms that tectonic plate boundaries and fully formed tectonic plates can arise under conditions characteristic of Earth but not of Venus.

doi: 10.1038/nature13072

生態:植食動物と栄養素は光量制限を介して草原の植物多様性を制御する

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation p.517

Experimental data collected from 40 grasslands on 6 continents show that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity; nutrient addition reduces local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescues diversity at sites where it alleviates light limitation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13144

生態:自然の草原では富栄養化が多様性の安定化作用を弱める

Eutrophication weakens stabilizing effects of diversity in natural grasslands p.521

Experimental eutrophication weakens the stabilizing effects of plant diversity on the productivity of natural grasslands.

doi: 10.1038/nature13014

微生物学:赤痢アメーバによるトロゴサイトーシスは細胞の殺傷と組織への侵入に関わっている

Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion p.526

Entamoeba histolytic, the causative agent of fatal diarrhoeal disease in children in the developing world, is shown here to kill human cells by biting off and ingesting pieces of cells, in a process reminiscent of the trogocytosis seen between immune cells; ingestion of bites is required for killing and this mechanism is used both in tissue culture and during invasion of intestinal explants.

doi: 10.1038/nature13242

医学:不全心ではmiR-25の抑制により心収縮力が改善する

Inhibition of miR-25 improves cardiac contractility in the failing heart p.531

Reduced activity of the calcium-transporting ATPase SERCA2a is a hallmark of heart failure; here, microRNAs that downregulate SERCA2a function are identified, and antagonism of one, miR-25, is shown to halt heart failure in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature13073

細胞:Foxc1は造血幹/前駆細胞ニッチの形成に極めて重要な調節因子である

Foxc1 is a critical regulator of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell niche formation p.536

Transcription factor Foxc1 is a key regulator of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell niche formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13071

細胞:Aktキナーゼのカルボキシル末端リン酸化によって起こる活性化は、細胞周期によって調節されている

Cell-cycle-regulated activation of Akt kinase by phosphorylation at its carboxyl terminus p.541

Phosphorylation of Akt at its carboxy-terminal tail is an essential layer of Akt activation to regulate its physiological functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13079

植物科学:花蜜の分泌にはスクロースリン酸シンターゼと糖輸送体SWEET9が必要である

Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9 p.546

Although nectar is known to be important, for example in plant–insect interactions, little has been known about the mechanism of its secretion; sucrose phosphate synthases are now reported to be essential for the synthesis of the sucrose component of nectar and the transporter protein SWEET9 is shown to mediate sucrose export into the extracellular space of the nectary.

doi: 10.1038/nature13082

構造生物学:IV型分泌系の構造

Structure of a type IV secretion system p.550

The three-dimensional structure of the type IV secretion system encoded by the Escherichia coli R388 conjugative plasmid.

doi: 10.1038/nature13081

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