目次

Editorials

米国は、ヒトを対象とした研究の被験者の安全を守るため、基礎データを開示できるようにすべきだ。

Safety first p.381

t is worrying that US government departments are unable to divulge basic data on research projects involving human subjects. Such data should be publicly available to ensure volunteers’ safety.

doi: 10.1038/530381a

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今週号の特集は「次の世代のために」についてだが、未来を決めるのは現在である。

Generation game p.381

A Nature special issue takes on the world of tomorrow — and the decisions shaping it today.

doi: 10.1038/530381b

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気候変動対策の進展に大きく貢献してきた3人がそろって第一線を退くが、炭素排出削減は計画どおり進めていかなくてはならない。

Climate changes p.382

The loss of three key facilitators must not impede progress on emissions mitigation.

doi: 10.1038/530382a

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News

合成生物学によるマラリア薬「半合成アルテミシニン」の販売が、大苦戦を。

Synthetic biology’s first malaria drug meets market resistance p.389

Commercial use of genetically engineered yeast to make medicine has modest impact.

Mark Peplow

doi: 10.1038/530390a

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米国立がん研究所が、長年用いられてきたヒトがん培養細胞株パネルに代わる、がん患者由来異種移植片レポジトリの作製を。

US cancer institute to overhaul tumour cell lines p.391

Veteran cells to be retired in favour of fresh tumour samples grown in mice.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19364

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地球観測衛星ランドサットのデータを利用した、森林の不法な伐採をほぼリアルタイムで把握できる警戒システムが。

Satellite alerts track deforestation in real time p.392

System uses Landsat data to issue warnings just hours after tree loss is detected.

Gabriel Popkin

doi: 10.1038/530392a

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ポーランドの森林管理機関が害虫対策と主張する原生林伐採案に、営利目的ではと研究者たちが疑いの目を。

Polish scientists protest over plan to log in Białowieża Forest p.393

Researchers suspect motives for a planned increase in felling are commercial, but forest administration cites pest control.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/530394a

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オーストラリアの研究用の非ヒト霊長類輸入禁止法案に、科学者たちから抗議の声が。

Proposal to ban imported monkeys catches scientists off guard p.394

Australian bill provokes rush of protests ahead of parliamentary deadline.

Bianca Nogrady

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19419

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50年以上前に行われ、大きな議論を巻き起こした伝説の「ミルグラム実験」の現代版で、命令に従って行動することで、責任意識が軽減することが明らかに。

Modern Milgram experiment sheds light on power of authority p.394

People obeying commands feel less responsibility for their actions.

Alison Abbott

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19408

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News Features

未来の世代

Future generations p.397

A special issue examines whether researchers today consider the world of tomorrow — and why they should.

doi: 10.1038/530397a

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明日の世界

A world where everyone has a robot: why 2040 could blow your mind p.398

Technological change is accelerating today at an unprecedented speed and could create a world we can barely begin to imagine.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/530398a

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明日の子供たち

Should you edit your children’s genes? p.402

In the fierce debate about CRISPR gene editing, it’s time to give patients a voice.

Erika Check Hayden

doi: 10.1038/530402a

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News & Views

自己免疫: 抗原特異的免疫療法

Autoimmunity: Antigen-specific immunotherapy p.422

Nanoparticles coated with fragments of the body's own proteins are shown to induce T cells of the immune system to adopt regulatory functions that suppress autoimmune reactions involving these self-antigens. See Article p.434

David Wraith

doi: 10.1038/nature17300

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エピジェネティクス: メッセンジャーRNAに付けられた新しいメチル標識

Epigenetics: A new methyl mark on messengers p.423

The presence of an N1 methyl group on adenine bases in DNA and RNA was thought to be a form of damage. Results now show that it also occurs at specific sites in messenger RNAs, where it affects protein expression. See Article p.441

Anna M. Kietrys & Eric T. Kool

doi: 10.1038/530423a

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古人類学: 歯から分かること

Palaeoanthropology: What teeth tell us p.425

Models based on developmental mechanisms described in mice and shared by most mammals are shown to accurately predict tooth size in extinct hominins, and can explain the small third molars in our species. See Letter p.477

Aida Gómez-Robles

doi: 10.1038/530425a

日本語要約 | Full Text

気候科学: 海洋の炭素シンクの隠されていた傾向

Climate science: Hidden trends in the ocean carbon sink p.426

Simulations of the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the ocean show that changes in flux associated with human activities are currently masked by natural climate variations, but will be evident in the near future. See Letter p.469

Tatiana Ilyina

doi: 10.1038/530426a

日本語要約 | Full Text

宇宙論: 高速電波バーストの起源

Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst p.427

Our understanding of fast radio bursts — intense pulses of radio waves — and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453

Duncan Lorimer

doi: 10.1038/530427a

日本語要約 | Full Text

Articles

進化遺伝学: 初期の現生人類から東方のネアンデルタール人へ向かった古代の遺伝子流動

Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals p.429

It is known that there was gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans around 50,000 years ago; now, analysis of a Neanderthal genome from the Altai Mountains in Siberia reveals evidence of gene flow 100,000 years ago in the other direction—from early modern humans to Neanderthals.

Martin Kuhlwilm, Ilan Gronau, Melissa J. Hubisz, Cesare de Filippo, Javier Prado-Martinez, Martin Kircher, Qiaomei Fu, Hernán A. Burbano, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16544

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免疫学: 抗原特異的な制御性T細胞ネットワークを拡大して自己免疫を治療する

Expanding antigen-specific regulatory networks to treat autoimmunity p.434

Nanoparticles coated with autoantigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules suppress established autoimmune disease by inducing antigen-specific TR1-like regulatory T cells in mouse and humanized mouse models.

Xavier Clemente-Casares, Jesus Blanco, Poornima Ambalavanan, Jun Yamanouchi, Santiswarup Singha, Cesar Fandos, Sue Tsai, Jinguo Wang, Nahir Garabatos, Cristina Izquierdo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16962

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エピジェネティクス: 真核生物メッセンジャーRNAにおける動的なN1-メチルアデノシンメチローム

The dynamic N1-methyladenosine methylome in eukaryotic messenger RNA p.441

Here the m1A modification is discovered in messenger RNA and mapped at the transcriptome-wide level; the modification is conserved, dynamic, accumulates in structured regions around translation initiation sites upstream of the first splice site, and correlates with higher protein expression.

Dan Dominissini, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Eyal Peer, Nitzan Kol, Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Qing Dai, Ayelet Di Segni, Mali Salmon-Divon, Wesley C. Clark + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16998

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エピジェネティクス: MLLファミリーに属するメチルトランスフェラーゼでの活性調節の構造基盤

Structural basis for activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases p.447

Crystal structures of the SET domains of MLL3 and a mutant MLL1 either unbound or complexed with domains from RBBP5 and ASH2L are determined; a combination of structural, biochemical and computational analyses reveals a two-step activation mechanism of MLL family proteins, which may be relevant for other histone methyltransferases.

Yanjing Li, Jianming Han, Yuebin Zhang, Fang Cao, Zhijun Liu, Shuai Li, Jian Wu, Chunyi Hu, Yan Wang, Jin Shuai + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16952

日本語要約 | Full Text |PDF

Letters

宇宙論: 高速電波バーストの母銀河

The host galaxy of a fast radio burst p.453

Observations of a six-day-long radio transient following a fast radio burst have yielded the host galaxy’s redshift, which, combined with the dispersion measure, provides a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium including all of the so-called ‘missing baryons’.

E. F. Keane, S. Johnston, S. Bhandari, E. Barr, N. D. R. Bhat, M. Burgay, M. Caleb, C. Flynn, A. Jameson, M. Kramer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17140

日本語要約 | Full Text |PDF

量子物理学: 分子イオンの量子論理分光法に対する非破壊状態検出

Non-destructive state detection for quantum logic spectroscopy of molecular ions p.457

Detecting the quantum states of molecules is harder than detecting those of atoms; here, a way around this problem is found by co-trapping a molecular and an atomic ion, using the state of the atomic ion to non-destructively determine that of the molecular ion.

Fabian Wolf, Yong Wan, Jan C. Heip, Florian Gebert, Chunyan Shi & Piet O. Schmidt

doi: 10.1038/nature16513

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物性物理学: K3C60における高温での光誘起超伝導の可能性

Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature p.461

By exciting high-temperature K3C60 with mid-infrared pulses, a large increase in carrier mobility is obtained, accompanied by the opening of a gap in the optical conductivity; these same signatures are observed at equilibrium when cooling K3C60 below the superconducting transition temperature of 20 kelvin, which could be an indication of light-induced high-temperature superconductivity.

M. Mitrano, A. Cantaluppi, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, A. Perucchi, S. Lupi, P. Di Pietro, D. Pontiroli, M. Riccò, S. R. Clark + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16522

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無機化学: 水の酸化を目的として設計された五核鉄触媒

A pentanuclear iron catalyst designed for water oxidation p.465

A complex containing five atoms of iron is shown to be a highly efficient and robust water oxidation catalyst owing to the presence of redox flexibility, which enables charge accumulation and electron transfer, and the presence of adjacent active sites that enables intramolecular O–O bond formation.

Masaya Okamura, Mio Kondo, Reiko Kuga, Yuki Kurashige, Takeshi Yanai, Shinya Hayami, Vijayendran K. K. Praneeth, Masaki Yoshida, Ko Yoneda, Satoshi Kawata + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16529

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生物地球化学: 海洋の炭素シンクの変化傾向の検出に関する時間スケール

Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink p.469

A climate modelling experiment is used to identify where ocean carbon uptake should change as a result of anthropogenic climate change and to distinguish these changes from internal climate variability; we may be able to detect changing uptake in some oceanic regions between 2020 and 2050, but until then, internal climate variability will preclude such detection.

Galen A. McKinley, Darren J. Pilcher, Amanda R. Fay, Keith Lindsay, Matthew C. Long & Nicole S. Lovenduski

doi: 10.1038/nature16958

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社会進化: 第三者による罰はコストの掛かる信頼性のシグナルとして働く

Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness p.473

In human societies, individuals who violate social norms may be punished by third-party observers who have not been harmed by the violator; this study suggests that a reason why the observers are willing to punish is to be seen as more trustworthy by the community.

Jillian J. Jordan, Moshe Hoffman, Paul Bloom & David G. Rand

doi: 10.1038/nature16981

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古生物学: ヒト族の歯のサイズの進化と成長は単純な規則に支配されている

A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size p.477

The inhibitory cascade, an activator–inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth in hominins.

Alistair R. Evans, E. Susanne Daly, Kierstin K. Catlett, Kathleen S. Paul, Stephen J. King, Matthew M. Skinner, Hans P. Nesse, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Grant C. Townsend, Gary T. Schwartz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16972

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神経科学: 成体でのShank3発現の回復は自閉症様表現型を選択的に救済する

Adult restoration of Shank3 expression rescues selective autistic-like phenotypes p.481

Re-expression of the Shank3 gene in adult mice results in improvements in synaptic protein composition and spine density in the striatum; Shank3 also rescues autism-like features such as social interaction and grooming behaviour, and the results suggest that aspects of autism spectrum disorders may be reversible in adulthood.

Yuan Mei, Patricia Monteiro, Yang Zhou, Jin-Ah Kim, Xian Gao, Zhanyan Fu & Guoping Feng

doi: 10.1038/nature16971

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微生物学: 活性化因子とメディエーター間の相互作用の破壊によって真菌多剤耐性を阻害する

Inhibiting fungal multidrug resistance by disrupting an activator–Mediator interaction p.485

A small molecule, inhibitor of a protein–protein interaction between the transcription factor Pdr1 and the Med15 subunit of Mediator in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, is identified and characterized here; the compound iKIX1 inhibits Pdr1-mediated gene activation and resensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models of disseminated and urinary tract infection.

Joy L. Nishikawa, Andras Boeszoermenyi, Luis A. Vale-Silva, Riccardo Torelli, Brunella Posteraro, Yoo-Jin Sohn, Fei Ji, Vladimir Gelev, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16963

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がんの代謝: リボソームによる異なるコドンの読み取りから明らかになった腫瘍特異的なプロリン脆弱性

Tumour-specific proline vulnerability uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading p.490

Tumours can require certain amino acids for their proliferation, and the diricore method described here helps to identify such restrictive amino acids; using this method in kidney cancer tissue and breast carcinoma cells, the authors observe an association between proline deficiency and upregulation of PYCR1, an enzyme required for proline synthesis.

Fabricio Loayza-Puch, Koos Rooijers, Levi C. M. Buil, Jelle Zijlstra, Joachim F. Oude Vrielink, Rui Lopes, Alejandro Pineiro Ugalde, Pieter van Breugel, Ingrid Hofland, Jelle Wesseling + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16982

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発生生物学: 上皮の3細胞結合は間期細胞形態のセンサーとして働き有糸分裂を方向付ける

Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis p.495

As fruitfly epithelial cells round up during mitosis, tricellular junctions serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape directionality to orient mitosis, and promoting geometric and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues.

Floris Bosveld, Olga Markova, Boris Guirao, Charlotte Martin, Zhimin Wang, Anaëlle Pierre, Maria Balakireva, Isabelle Gaugue, Anna Ainslie, Nicolas Christophorou + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16970

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構造生物学: 大腸菌由来のタイプI–E Cascade複合体における無差別的PAM認識の構造基盤

Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I–E Cascade from E. coli p.499

The structure of E. coli Cascade bound to foreign target DNA is presented, revealing the basis of the relaxed Cascade PAM recognition specificity, which results from its interaction with the minor groove, and demonstrating how a wedge in Cascade forces the directional pairing of the target strand with CRISPR RNA while stabilizing the non-target displaced strand.

Robert P. Hayes, Yibei Xiao, Fran Ding, Paul B. G. van Erp, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Scott Bailey, Blake Wiedenheft & Ailong Ke

doi: 10.1038/nature16995

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