Volume 551 Number 7682



Opiate deaths demand serious action p.541

Epidemic of painkiller addiction and overdoses in the United States needs a wide-ranging response.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07657-z


Traditional Chinese medicine needs proper scrutiny p.541

New laws that promote centuries-old herbal remedies are a backwards step for China. Only controlled clinical trials can satisfy concerns.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07650-6


London scientists feel the noise p.542

Researchers join those donning headphones to cope with open-plan chatter.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07617-7



AI-controlled brain implants for mood disorders tested in people p.549

Researchers funded by the US military are developing appliances to record neural activity and automatically stimulate the brain to treat mental illness.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23031


‘Alien’ DNA makes proteins in living cells for the first time p.550

Expanded genetic alphabet could allow for the production of new protein-based drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23040


United Kingdom relies on science to revive flagging economy p.551

Long-awaited industrial strategy pins hopes on commercial gains from research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23043


China to roll back regulations for traditional medicine despite safety concerns p.552

Scientists fear plans to abandon clinical trials of centuries-old remedies will put people at risk.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23038

News Features


Supercomputing poised for a massive speed boost p.554


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07523-y

News & Views


Cell division: How chromosomes unite p.568


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07439-7


Atomic physics: Large quantum systems tamed p.569


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07438-8


Microbiota: A high-pressure situation for bacteria p.571


doi: 10.1038/nature24760


Electronics: Contactless health-care sensing p.572


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07434-y


Archaeology: Inequality has deep roots in Eurasia p.573


doi: 10.1038/nature24758


Catalysis: Methane upgraded by rhodium p.575


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07437-9


Cell biology: Bulky tether proteins aid membrane fusion p.576

小胞と標的細胞器官の融合をin vivoで駆動するエネルギー源は、よく分かっていない。今回、融合する構造体をつなぐタンパク質も、最終的な融合段階に必要なエネルギーを低下させることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24754



Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator p.579

Programmable quantum simulations of many-body systems are demonstrated using a reconfigurable array of 51 individually trapped cold atoms with strong, coherent interactions controlled via excitation to Rydberg states.

doi: 10.1038/nature24622


Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease p.585

High salt intake changed the gut microbiome and increased TH17 cell numbers in mice, and reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus species, increased the number of TH17 cells and increased blood pressure in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature24628


Mechanism of tandem duplication formation in BRCA1-mutant cells p.590

BRCA1, but not BRCA2, suppresses the formation of tandem duplications at stalled replication forks in primary mammalian cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24477



Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption p.596

IceCube has measured the absorption of atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos in the Earth, and found that the interaction cross-section of multi-TeV neutrinos is within 50 per cent of the predictions of the standard model.

doi: 10.1038/nature24459


Observation of a many-body dynamical phase transition with a 53-qubit quantum simulator p.601

Many-body dynamical phases in an Ising-like quantum spin model with long-range interactions are observed by measuring correlations in single shots, using a quantum simulator composed of 53 qubits.

doi: 10.1038/nature24654


Mild oxidation of methane to methanol or acetic acid on supported isolated rhodium catalysts p.605

Single-site isolated rhodium species anchored on zeolites or titanium dioxide are shown to catalyse the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid, using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24640


Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of non-activated tertiary C–H bonds p.609

The functionalization of specific inert C–H bonds avoids the need for functional groups in organic synthesis and here the challenges of this approach are overcome using a dirhodium catalyst that is capable of C–H bond site-selectivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24641


Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion p.614

Halogen abundances in chondrites are 6 to 37 times lower than previously reported, which is consistent with the low abundances of these elements found in Earth.

doi: 10.1038/nature24625


Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica p.619

Analyses of house-size distributions in the Old and New World showed that wealth disparities increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature24646


Orthogonal muscle fibres have different instructive roles in planarian regeneration p.623

Longitudinal and circular muscle fibres have distinct regulatory roles during planarian regeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature24660


A lysosomal switch triggers proteostasis renewal in the immortal C. elegans germ lineage p.629

Sperm-activated lysosomes enhance proteostasis in nematode oocytes just before fertilization; this could prevent transmission of damaged proteins to the next generation and may explain the immortality of the germ-cell lineage.

doi: 10.1038/nature24620


A tethering complex drives the terminal stage of SNARE-dependent membrane fusion p.634

Tethering proteins, known to mediate initial recognition and attachment during membrane fusion, are essential for driving the transition from the hemifused state to fusion pore formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature24469


NFS1 undergoes positive selection in lung tumours and protects cells from ferroptosis p.639

Cancers growing in high-oxygen environments, such as lung adenocarcinomas, select for the iron–sulfur cluster synthesizing enzyme NFS1 to support malignant proliferation and to protect from oxidative damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature24637


A semi-synthetic organism that stores and retrieves increased genetic information p.644

A modified Escherichia coli is used to demonstrate that semi-synthetic organisms can use non-natural hydrophobic base pairs to genetically encode for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature24659


A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites p.648

A pathway for the production of aromatic amino acid metabolites in Clostridium sporogenes is described; modulation of serum levels of these metabolites in gnotobiotic mice affects intestinal permeability and systemic immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24661


Structural basis for the initiation of eukaryotic transcription-coupled DNA repair p.653

Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of yeast Rad26 bound to RNA polymerase II provides insight into the initiation of the transcription-coupled DNA repair mechanism in eukaryotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature24658

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