目次

Editorials

IPCC(気候変動に関する政府間パネル)は、地球温暖化対策の重要性を政治に認識させることに大きく貢献したが、そうした働きかけを一般社会へも広げる必要がある。

A shift in climate p.293

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has done much to alert politicians to the effects of global warming. But to push climate change up the agenda, it will need to do the same for the public.

doi: 10.1038/526293a

倫理的課題の伴う研究について、かつてのアシロマ会議のように科学者のみでの会議で解決を図るのは、もはや最善の方法とは言えない。

After Asilomar p.293

Scientist-led conferences are no longer the best way to resolve debates on controversial research.

doi: 10.1038/526293b

線虫の神経系の配線図から、「心の性的二型」の基盤となる機構が明らかになり、今後もますます多くの発見が期待されている。

The worm returns p.294

The wiring diagram of the male nematode’s nervous system is only a beginning.

doi: 10.1038/526294a

News

英国がん研究基金が、7つの重要なテーマを選んで、巨額の助成を。

World's largest cancer charity lays out field's grand challenges p.301

Cancer Research UK to invest £100 million in seven big goals.

doi: 10.1038/526301a

高温地域から出土した古代の人骨からも、DNAの回収・分析が可能に。

Ancient DNA from hot climes yields its secrets p.303

After years of frustration, researchers are getting genetic material from old bones in warm places.

doi: 10.1038/526303a

キログラムの再定義に向けて有望な結果が。

Kilogram conflict resolved at last p.305

After a fraught few years, experiments to redefine the unit have reached agreement.

doi: 10.1038/526305a

カナダとスイスの企業が、大気中のCO2を回収・利用する技術を商業規模に。

Companies that suck carbon from air line up customers p.306

Development sets stage for future expansion of the technology.

doi: 10.1038/526306a

2015年ノーベル化学賞は、DNA修復機構を解明した3氏に。

DNA repair sleuths win chemistry Nobel p.307

Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar share 2015 prize.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18515

News Features

CRISPR:ヒトゲノム編集の現状

Where in the world could the first CRISPR baby be born? p.310

CRISPRベビーが誕生する可能性があるのはどこの国なのか、各国の規制の状況から見る。

doi: 10.1038/526310a

神経科学:脳と腸の出会い

The tantalizing links between gut microbes and the brain p.312

神経科学者たちが、脳の発達と腸内微生物相との関連についての研究を進めている。

doi: 10.1038/526312a

News & Views

神経科学:脳の謎の解読

Neuroscience: Decrypting a brain enigma p.326

小脳にあって互いに逆の性質を持つように見える2つのプルキンエ細胞が組み合わさって果たすニューロン活動は、サッケード(衝動性眼球運動)として知られている、短時間の速い眼球運動の制御に必要であることがサルで明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/526326a

気候科学:南極氷床融解の遠い将来

Climate science: The long future of Antarctic melting p.327

気候変動に応じて起こる南極氷床の融解は、全球の海水準を2300年までに最大で3 m上昇させ、その後も数千年にわたって上昇が続く可能性があることが、シミュレーションによって示された。

doi: 10.1038/526327a

免疫学:T細胞機能への細菌からの刺激

Immunology: A bacterial nudge to T-cell function p.328

腸管内表面を覆っている上皮細胞は、細菌がしっかり結合したことを感知し、それに応じて免疫系のTH17細胞のエフェクター機能を形作るタンパク質群の産生を開始することが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/526328a

核物理学:たまに起こるγ線の二重崩壊

Nuclear physics: Sometimes γ-rays come in twos p.330

励起バリウム原子核でのまれな崩壊過程が画期的な方法で測定されたことは、原子核の構造と崩壊モードを探る技術の開発への道を開くものとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/526330a

認知障害:レット症候群の症状は脳深部刺激によって軽減される

Cognitive disorders: Deep brain stimulation for Rett syndrome p.331

MECP2遺伝子に生じた変異は、レット症候群と呼ばれている知的障害を引き起こす。この症候群のマウスモデルの1つで、脳深部領域への電気刺激が症候群の特徴となる症状のいくつかを軽減することが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/526331a

ナノ物理学:微視的な摩擦エミュレーター

Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators p.332

レーザーによって作られたエネルギーポテンシャルが周期的に変化するパターン上をすべって移動する低温のイオンを使って、結晶同士の間の乾燥摩擦の物理学的性質が解明された。広範囲にわたる摩擦力を調べるのにも、6個以下という少数のイオンを使った実験で十分である。

doi: 10.1038/526332a

行動経済学:目に見える不平等はさらなる不平等を生み出す

Behavioural economics: Visible inequality breeds more inequality p.333

社会的ネットワーク中で富の不平等が見て取れるようになると、これが協力行動の低下や社会的つながりの弱体化を引き起こし、それがさらなる不平等の発生を促すようになると考えられることが、実験によって示された。

doi: 10.1038/526333a

Review

認知神経科学:ヒト脳の探究の進展と課題

Progress and challenges in probing the human brain p.371

This Review evaluates current techniques used to investigate human brain function, discusses the successes and limitations of these techniques to test hypotheses about causal mechanisms, and looks to future directions and implementation of these techniques in real-world problems.

doi: 10.1038/nature15692

Articles

進化生態学:白亜紀の真三錐歯類と初期哺乳類の外皮の進化

A Cretaceous eutriconodont and integument evolution in early mammals p.380

Description of a well-preserved 125-million-year-old fossil of a triconodont mammal from Spain, which extends the record of mammalian soft-tissue preservation back into the Mesozoic era.

doi: 10.1038/nature14905

学習と記憶:C. elegansの性特異的学習にはグリア由来ニューロンが必要である

Glia-derived neurons are required for sex-specific learning in C. elegans p.385

In the worm C. elegans, a previously unidentified pair of bilateral neurons in the male (termed MCMs) are shown to arise from differentiated glial cells upon sexual maturation; these neurons are essential for a male-specific form of associative learning which balances chemotactic responses with reproductive priorities.

doi: 10.1038/nature15700

構造生物学:グルコース輸送体によるリガンド認識と輸送の分子基盤

Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters p.391

The SLC2 family glucose transporters facilitate the transport of glucose and other monosaccharides across biological membranes; the X-ray crystal structure of human GLUT3 has been solved in outward-open and outward-occluded conformations and a model for how the membrane protein rearranges itself during a complete transport cycle has been proposed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14655

構造生物学:哺乳類のフルクトース輸送体GLUT5の構造と作用機構

Structure and mechanism of the mammalian fructose transporter GLUT5 p.397

This study has determined the X-ray crystal structures of GLUT5 from Rattus norvegicus in an open, outward-facing conformation and GLUT5 from Bos taurus in an open, inward-facing conformation; comparison of these structures with previously published structures of the related Escherichia coli d-xylose:H+ symporter XylE suggests that transport in GLUT5 is controlled by both a global ‘rocker-switch’-type motion and a local ‘gated-pore’-type transport mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14909

Letters

惑星科学:彗星67Pのバイローブ形状を持つ核における2つの独立した始原的な外層

Two independent and primitive envelopes of the bilobate nucleus of comet 67P p.402

The ‘onion-like’ stratification of the two lobes of the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko reveals that its unusual shape is the result of a gentle collision merging two kilometre-sized objects in the early stages of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature15511

核物理学:競合的な二重ガンマ核崩壊の観測

Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay p.406

The exotic double-gamma nuclear decay has been observed in cases where the usual single-gamma decay is forbidden, but now a double-gamma decay of excited 137Ba is reported that is in competition with a single-gamma decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature15543

量子情報:シリコンにおける2量子ビット論理ゲート

A two-qubit logic gate in silicon p.410

A high-fidelity two-qubit CNOT logic gate is presented, which is realized by combining single- and two-qubit operations with controlled phase operations in a quantum dot system using the exchange interaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature15263

生体材料:新しい二次構造モチーフを示すペプトイドナノシート

Peptoid nanosheets exhibit a new secondary-structure motif p.415

Some peptoids—synthetic structural relatives of polypeptides—can assemble into two-dimensional nanometre-scale sheets; simulations and experimental measurements show that these nanosheets contain a motif unique to peptoids, namely zigzag Σ-strands, which interlock and enable the nanosheets to extend in two dimensions only.

doi: 10.1038/nature15363

気候科学:将来の海水準上昇に対する数千年間の南極の関与

The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise p.421

Despite computational and methodological uncertainties, and a wide range of potential greenhouse gas emissions, here millennial-scale simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in a warming climate show that most of Antarctica’s fringing ice shelves will collapse, leading to a rise in sea level of up to 3 metres by 2300.

doi: 10.1038/nature15706

社会進化学:実験的な社会的ネットワークにおける富の不平等と可視性

Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks p.426

Wealth inequality and wealth visibility can potentially affect overall levels of cooperation and economic success, and an online experiment was used to test how these factors interact; wealth inequality by itself did not substantially damage overall cooperation or overall wealth, but making wealth levels visible had a detrimental effect on social welfare.

doi: 10.1038/nature15392

神経疾患:脳弓への深部刺激はレット症候群マウスの海馬記憶を救済する

Forniceal deep brain stimulation rescues hippocampal memory in Rett syndrome mice p.430

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the fimbria–fornix—a region that provides input to the hippocampus—is shown to restore hippocampus-dependent memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation and neurogenesis in a mouse model of Rett syndrome, suggesting that DBS, which is already used in the treatment of several neurological conditions, could be a viable approach to mitigating cognitive impairment in Rett syndrome and other disorders of childhood intellectual disability.

doi: 10.1038/nature15694

神経科学:延髄腹側部のGABA作動性ニューロンによるREM睡眠の制御

Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons p.435

Activation of GABAergic neurons in the ventral medulla can reliably induce REM sleep and prolong the duration of REM episodes in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14979

計算神経科学:小脳プルキンエ細胞による活動の符号化

Encoding of action by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum p.439

Recording from Purkinje cells in monkeys, this study found that the combined simple-spike responses of bursting and pausing Purkinje cells, but not either population alone, predicted the real-time speed of saccades; moreover, when Purkinje cells were organized according to their complex-spike field, the population responses encoded both speed and direction of the eye during saccades via a gain field.

doi: 10.1038/nature15693

分子神経科学:η-セクレターゼによるAPPのプロセシングは海馬でのニューロンの活動を阻害する

η-Secretase processing of APP inhibits neuronal activity in the hippocampus p.443

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques, which are predominantly composed of amyloid-β peptide. Two principal physiological pathways either prevent or promote amyloid-β generation from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a competitive manner. Although APP processing has been studied in great detail, unknown proteolytic events seem to hinder stoichiometric analyses of APP metabolism in vivo. Here we describe a new physiological APP processing pathway, which generates proteolytic fragments capable of inhibiting neuronal activity within the hippocampus. We identify higher molecular mass carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) of APP, termed CTF-η, in addition to the long-known CTF-α and CTF-β fragments generated by the α- and β-secretases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1), respectively. CTF-η generation is mediated in part by membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinases such as MT5-MMP, referred to as η-secretase activity. η-Secretase cleavage occurs primarily at amino acids 504–505 of APP695, releasing a truncated ectodomain. After shedding of this ectodomain, CTF-η is further processed by ADAM10 and BACE1 to release long and short Aη peptides (termed Aη-α and Aη-β). CTFs produced by η-secretase are enriched in dystrophic neurites in an AD mouse model and in human AD brains. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of BACE1 activity results in robust accumulation of CTF-η and Aη-α. In mice treated with a potent BACE1 inhibitor, hippocampal long-term potentiation was reduced. Notably, when recombinant or synthetic Aη-α was applied on hippocampal slices ex vivo, long-term potentiation was lowered. Furthermore, in vivo single-cell two-photon calcium imaging showed that hippocampal neuronal activity was attenuated by Aη-α. These findings not only demonstrate a major functionally relevant APP processing pathway, but may also indicate potential translational relevance for therapeutic strategies targeting APP processing.

doi: 10.1038/nature14864

神経科学:Gli1の阻害は内因性神経幹細胞を髄鞘再形成に動員する

Inhibition of Gli1 mobilizes endogenous neural stem cells for remyelination p.448

A subset of adult neural stem cells, responsive to sonic hedgehog, are more effective at remyelination when the transcription factor Gli1 is inhibited.

doi: 10.1038/nature14957

がん:選択的転写開始はがんに見られる新規のALKアイソフォームの発現につながる

Alternative transcription initiation leads to expression of a novel ALK isoform in cancer p.453

A novel ALK transcript expressed in a subset of human cancers, arising from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site within the ALK gene, is described; the ALK transcript encodes three protein isoforms that stimulate tumorigenesis in vivo in mouse models; resultant tumours are sensitive to treatments with ALK inhibitors, indicating a possible therapeutic avenue for patients expressing these isoforms.

doi: 10.1038/nature15258

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