Volume 526 Number 7573



After Asilomar p.293

Scientist-led conferences are no longer the best way to resolve debates on controversial research.

doi: 10.1038/526293b


A shift in climate p.293

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has done much to alert politicians to the effects of global warming. But to push climate change up the agenda, it will need to do the same for the public.

doi: 10.1038/526293a


The worm returns p.294

The wiring diagram of the male nematode’s nervous system is only a beginning.

doi: 10.1038/526294a



World's largest cancer charity lays out field's grand challenges p.301

Cancer Research UK to invest £100 million in seven big goals.

doi: 10.1038/526301a


Ancient DNA from hot climes yields its secrets p.303

After years of frustration, researchers are getting genetic material from old bones in warm places.

doi: 10.1038/526303a


Kilogram conflict resolved at last p.305

After a fraught few years, experiments to redefine the unit have reached agreement.

doi: 10.1038/526305a


Companies that suck carbon from air line up customers p.306

Development sets stage for future expansion of the technology.

doi: 10.1038/526306a


DNA repair sleuths win chemistry Nobel p.307

Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar share 2015 prize.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18515

News Features


Where in the world could the first CRISPR baby be born? p.310


doi: 10.1038/526310a


The tantalizing links between gut microbes and the brain p.312


doi: 10.1038/526312a

News & Views


Neuroscience: Decrypting a brain enigma p.326


doi: 10.1038/526326a


Climate science: The long future of Antarctic melting p.327

気候変動に応じて起こる南極氷床の融解は、全球の海水準を2300年までに最大で3 m上昇させ、その後も数千年にわたって上昇が続く可能性があることが、シミュレーションによって示された。

doi: 10.1038/526327a


Immunology: A bacterial nudge to T-cell function p.328


doi: 10.1038/526328a


Nuclear physics: Sometimes γ-rays come in twos p.330


doi: 10.1038/526330a


Cognitive disorders: Deep brain stimulation for Rett syndrome p.331


doi: 10.1038/526331a


Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators p.332


doi: 10.1038/526332a


Behavioural economics: Visible inequality breeds more inequality p.333


doi: 10.1038/526333a



Progress and challenges in probing the human brain p.371

This Review evaluates current techniques used to investigate human brain function, discusses the successes and limitations of these techniques to test hypotheses about causal mechanisms, and looks to future directions and implementation of these techniques in real-world problems.

doi: 10.1038/nature15692



A Cretaceous eutriconodont and integument evolution in early mammals p.380

Description of a well-preserved 125-million-year-old fossil of a triconodont mammal from Spain, which extends the record of mammalian soft-tissue preservation back into the Mesozoic era.

doi: 10.1038/nature14905

学習と記憶:C. elegansの性特異的学習にはグリア由来ニューロンが必要である

Glia-derived neurons are required for sex-specific learning in C. elegans p.385

In the worm C. elegans, a previously unidentified pair of bilateral neurons in the male (termed MCMs) are shown to arise from differentiated glial cells upon sexual maturation; these neurons are essential for a male-specific form of associative learning which balances chemotactic responses with reproductive priorities.

doi: 10.1038/nature15700


Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters p.391

The SLC2 family glucose transporters facilitate the transport of glucose and other monosaccharides across biological membranes; the X-ray crystal structure of human GLUT3 has been solved in outward-open and outward-occluded conformations and a model for how the membrane protein rearranges itself during a complete transport cycle has been proposed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14655


Structure and mechanism of the mammalian fructose transporter GLUT5 p.397

This study has determined the X-ray crystal structures of GLUT5 from Rattus norvegicus in an open, outward-facing conformation and GLUT5 from Bos taurus in an open, inward-facing conformation; comparison of these structures with previously published structures of the related Escherichia coli d-xylose:H+ symporter XylE suggests that transport in GLUT5 is controlled by both a global ‘rocker-switch’-type motion and a local ‘gated-pore’-type transport mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14909



Two independent and primitive envelopes of the bilobate nucleus of comet 67P p.402

The ‘onion-like’ stratification of the two lobes of the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko reveals that its unusual shape is the result of a gentle collision merging two kilometre-sized objects in the early stages of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature15511


Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay p.406

The exotic double-gamma nuclear decay has been observed in cases where the usual single-gamma decay is forbidden, but now a double-gamma decay of excited 137Ba is reported that is in competition with a single-gamma decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature15543


A two-qubit logic gate in silicon p.410

A high-fidelity two-qubit CNOT logic gate is presented, which is realized by combining single- and two-qubit operations with controlled phase operations in a quantum dot system using the exchange interaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature15263


Peptoid nanosheets exhibit a new secondary-structure motif p.415

Some peptoids—synthetic structural relatives of polypeptides—can assemble into two-dimensional nanometre-scale sheets; simulations and experimental measurements show that these nanosheets contain a motif unique to peptoids, namely zigzag Σ-strands, which interlock and enable the nanosheets to extend in two dimensions only.

doi: 10.1038/nature15363


The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise p.421

Despite computational and methodological uncertainties, and a wide range of potential greenhouse gas emissions, here millennial-scale simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in a warming climate show that most of Antarctica’s fringing ice shelves will collapse, leading to a rise in sea level of up to 3 metres by 2300.

doi: 10.1038/nature15706


Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks p.426

Wealth inequality and wealth visibility can potentially affect overall levels of cooperation and economic success, and an online experiment was used to test how these factors interact; wealth inequality by itself did not substantially damage overall cooperation or overall wealth, but making wealth levels visible had a detrimental effect on social welfare.

doi: 10.1038/nature15392


Forniceal deep brain stimulation rescues hippocampal memory in Rett syndrome mice p.430

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the fimbria–fornix—a region that provides input to the hippocampus—is shown to restore hippocampus-dependent memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation and neurogenesis in a mouse model of Rett syndrome, suggesting that DBS, which is already used in the treatment of several neurological conditions, could be a viable approach to mitigating cognitive impairment in Rett syndrome and other disorders of childhood intellectual disability.

doi: 10.1038/nature15694


Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons p.435

Activation of GABAergic neurons in the ventral medulla can reliably induce REM sleep and prolong the duration of REM episodes in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14979


Encoding of action by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum p.439

Recording from Purkinje cells in monkeys, this study found that the combined simple-spike responses of bursting and pausing Purkinje cells, but not either population alone, predicted the real-time speed of saccades; moreover, when Purkinje cells were organized according to their complex-spike field, the population responses encoded both speed and direction of the eye during saccades via a gain field.

doi: 10.1038/nature15693


η-Secretase processing of APP inhibits neuronal activity in the hippocampus p.443

A new pathway for the processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is described in which η-secretase activity, in part mediated by the MT5-MMP metalloproteinase, cleaves APP, and further processing by ADAM10 and BACE1 generates proteolytic fragments capable of inhibiting long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14864


Inhibition of Gli1 mobilizes endogenous neural stem cells for remyelination p.448

A subset of adult neural stem cells, responsive to sonic hedgehog, are more effective at remyelination when the transcription factor Gli1 is inhibited.

doi: 10.1038/nature14957


Alternative transcription initiation leads to expression of a novel ALK isoform in cancer p.453

A novel ALK transcript expressed in a subset of human cancers, arising from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site within the ALK gene, is described; the ALK transcript encodes three protein isoforms that stimulate tumorigenesis in vivo in mouse models; resultant tumours are sensitive to treatments with ALK inhibitors, indicating a possible therapeutic avenue for patients expressing these isoforms.

doi: 10.1038/nature15258

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