英国の大学研究評価制度Research Excellence Frameworkにはまだ見直すべき点があり、今後はラボリーダーの過剰な負担の軽減に取り組んでいくべきだ。

UK research assessment should boost support for principal investigators p.5

The Stern review backed the Research Excellence Framework but missed a chance to ease the burden on group leaders.

doi: 10.1038/536005a

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Step aside, Olympics: here’s the Cybathlon p.5

The Olympic Games celebrate physical prowess, but a cyborg Olympics honours and attempts to improve the lives of disabled people.

doi: 10.1038/536005b

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Troubled Japanese space agency seeks fresh start p.13

Push to resurrect instrument lost during satellite failure highlights JAXA’s resilience.

doi: 10.1038/536013a

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Monumental proof to torment mathematicians for years to come p.14

Conference on Shinichi Mochizuki’s work inspires cautious optimism.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20342

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Scientists seek influence on ‘Brexit ministry’ p.15

They hope for an active role in the UK department for exiting the EU.

doi: 10.1038/536015a

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Legal maze threatens to slow data science p.16

Researcher who spent months chasing permission to republish online data sets urges others to read up on the law.

doi: 10.1038/536016a

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Scholarly Olympics: How the games have shaped research p.18

A graphical guide to the impact of the Olympics on science.

doi: 10.1038/536018a

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News Features


Faster higher strongerWelcome to the Cyborg Olympics p.20


doi: 10.1038/536020a

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News & Views


Heart disease: Death-defying plaque cells p.32


doi: 10.1038/nature18916

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Synthetic biology: Bacteria synchronized for drug delivery p.33


doi: 10.1038/nature18915

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Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing p.35


doi: 10.1038/536035a

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Biomedical science: Protection for anaesthetized mice p.36


doi: 10.1038/536036a

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Diabetes: Still a geneticist's nightmare p.37


doi: 10.1038/nature18906

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Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge p.38


doi: 10.1038/536038a

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The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes p.41

Sequencing data from two large-scale studies show that most of the genetic variation influencing the risk of type 2 diabetes involves common alleles and is found in regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies, clarifying the genetic architecture of this disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature18642

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Structural basis of potent Zika–dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization p.48

doi: 10.1038/nature18938

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Bright carbonate deposits as evidence of aqueous alteration on (1) Ceres p.54

High-resolution near-infrared observations of the Occator bright areas on the dwarf planet Ceres suggest that the bright material is mostly made up of endogenous sodium carbonate.

doi: 10.1038/nature18290

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Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations p.58

A device consisting of a metallic island connected to electrodes via tunable semiconductor-based conduction channels is used to explore the evolution of charge quantization in the presence of quantum fluctuations; the measurements reveal a robust scaling of charge quantization as the square root of the residual electron reflection probability across a quantum channel, consistent with theoretical predictions.

doi: 10.1038/nature19072

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Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits p.63

A small programmable quantum computer is demonstrated that uses five trapped ions as qubits; the computer is reconfigurable and different algorithms can be compiled without changing the hardware.

doi: 10.1038/nature18648

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Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils p.67

Moving mechanical interfaces need to be lubricated to ensure long life and easy slippage; here, a new type of coating is described—comprising nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, together with a copper or nickel catalyst—that generates protective tribofilms from lubricating oils.

doi: 10.1038/nature18948

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Evidence for climate change in the satellite cloud record p.72

Satellite records show that the global pattern of cloud changes between the 1980s and the 2000s are similar to the patterns predicted by models of climate with recent external radiative forcing, and that the primary drivers of the cloud changes appear to be increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and a recovery from volcanic radiative cooling.

doi: 10.1038/nature18273

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A novel excitatory network for the control of breathing p.76

A novel rhythmogenic brainstem network was discovered in mice that is necessary and sufficient for generating postinspiration, a breathing phase also used for swallowing, coughing and vocalization.

doi: 10.1038/nature18944

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システム生物学:in vivo送達のために細菌の溶菌サイクルを同調させる

Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery p.81

Clinically relevant bacteria have been engineered to lyse synchronously at a threshold population density and release genetically encoded therapeutics; treatment of mice with these bacteria slowed the growth of tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature18930

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CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis p.86

Atherosclerotic lesions in mice and humans switch on a ‘don’t eat me’ signal—expression of CD47—that prevents effective removal of diseased tissue; anti-CD47 antibody therapy can normalize this defective efferocytosis, with beneficial results in several mouse models of atherosclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18935

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Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma–T cell interactions p.91

Analyses of tumour samples and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from two patients with melanoma who were treated with adoptive T-cell therapy provide evidence for tumour escape by loss and downregulation of immunogenic antigens.

doi: 10.1038/nature18945

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eIF3d is an mRNA cap-binding protein that is required for specialized translation initiation p.96

The initiation protein eIF3d serves as an alternative cap-recognition factor for a subclass of mRNAs, such as c-Jun; the high-resolution structure of the eIF3d cap-binding domain can be modelled onto the cap structure, defining interactions that are needed for translation of these mRNAs.

doi: 10.1038/nature18954

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The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1 p.100

A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the DNA damage repair protein 53BP1 bound to a nucleosome illuminates the way 53BP1 recognizes two types of histone modifications (a methyl group and a ubiquitin moiety), and provides insight into the highly specified recognition and recruitment of 53BP1 to modified chromatin.

doi: 10.1038/nature18951

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Structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an engineered G protein p.104

An engineered G protein is used to bind to and stabilize the active conformation of the adenosine A2A receptor, enabling the acquisition of an X-ray crystal structure of this GPCR in an active state.

doi: 10.1038/nature18966

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構造生物学:TARP結合部位が完全に占有されたGluA2 AMPA受容体–TARP複合体の低温電子顕微鏡によって明らかになった構造

Architecture of fully occupied GluA2 AMPA receptor–TARP complex elucidated by cryo-EM p.108

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the homomeric GluA2 AMPA receptor in the presence of ARP γ2 subunits is reported, which reveals that TARPs are arranged around the ion channel domain and underneath the ligand-binding domains, poised to modulate receptor activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature18961

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