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Editorials

独フォルクスワーゲン社の排ガス不正問題は、科学的知見を行政に生かす橋渡しとなるレギュラトリーサイエンスの重要性を如実に示している。

Testing times p.5

The unfolding Volkswagen saga highlights the need for better funding of regulatory science — and should prompt regulators to keep a closer eye on whether their rules are working.

doi: 10.1038/526005a

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1000ゲノムプロジェクトの完了は、この大量の情報を個人の健康に役立てるという最終目標に向けた新しい段階の幕開けである。

Variety of life p.5

An effort to sequence thousands of people’s genomes reaches the end of the beginning.

doi: 10.1038/526005b

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国連の「持続可能な開発」の目標達成には、これを現実的な政策に変換する必要がある。

Goals galore p.6

The latest global targets from the United Nations must be translated into realistic policies.

doi: 10.1038/526006a

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News

中国が、温室効果ガス排出削減のため、キャップ・アンド・トレード制度を導入へ。

China to launch cap-and-trade system p.13

Climate commitment could help to build momentum towards a new global pact to limit greenhouse-gas emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18440

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米国カリフォルニア州は、今後も干ばつに繰り返し襲われる恐れが。

California agriculture weathers drought — at a cost p.14

El Niño might bring relief, but longer and deeper dry spells are predicted.

doi: 10.1038/526014a

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景気悪化で、ブラジルの科学に深刻な影響が。

Brazilian science paralysed by economic slump p.16

From unpaid electricity bills to delayed participation in a telescope project, funding cuts bite.

doi: 10.1038/526016a

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細菌から新規な小型酵素Cpf1が見つかり、これによってCRISPR系によるゲノム編集がますます簡単に。

Alternative CRISPR system could improve genome editing p.17

Smaller enzyme may make process simpler and more exact.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18432

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中国BGIが、遺伝子編集によって作られたマイクロブタをペットとして販売へ。

Gene-edited 'micropigs' to be sold as pets at Chinese institute p.18

The pigs are endearing but scientists warn that they may be a distraction from more serious research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18448

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数学者のTerence Taoが、Erdős discrepancy problemを証明。

Maths whizz solves a master’s riddle p.19

Terence Tao builds on an online collaboration to successfully attack the Erdős discrepancy problem.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18441

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アルキメデスの宇宙のモデル装置を、スイスの学芸員が再現。

Archimedes’ legendary sphere brought to life p.19

Recreation of a 2,000-year-old model of the Universe to appear in exhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18431

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News Features

テクノロジー:ビットコインとその先に

The future of cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin and beyond p.21

デジタル通貨は多くの法的問題の種になってきたが、起業家とアカデミアが協力して、より良いデジタル通貨の構築を目指している。

doi: 10.1038/526021a

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天文学:山をめぐる闘争

The mountain-top battle over the Thirty Meter Telescope p.24

ハワイのマウナケア山に世界最大級の望遠鏡を建設する計画が、さまざまな意見の対立を招き、泥沼にはまっている。

doi: 10.1038/526024a

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News & Views

宇宙物理学:脚光を浴びる原始星

Astrophysics: Primordial stars brought to light p.46

宇宙の化学的歴史にとって、最古の星は非常に重要であるが、こうした星はこれまで理論的な存在にすぎなかった。だが今回、種族IIIに属するこのような星が、初期宇宙で見つかったこれまでで最も明るい銀河中に存在することを示す強力な証拠が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/526046a

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ナノテクノロジー:血小板を模倣する

Nanotechnology: Platelet mimicry p.47

薬剤を詰め込んだナノ粒子を血小板の細胞膜で包み込むと、目的の細胞や組織に対する薬剤送達能が高まる。この技術は心血管疾患や感染症の治療を改善すると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/nature15218

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生物季節学:温暖化した世界で春の芽吹きはどう変わる?

Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world p.48

気温がより高ければ、その年の春の若葉はより早く出現すると、これまで考えられてきた。だが、新しいデータでは、全球的に気温が上昇するにつれて、出葉の気温に対する感受性が低下してきたことが示唆されている。

doi: 10.1038/nature15633

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神経発達障害:分子の張り綱

Neurodevelopmental disease: A molecular tightrope p.50

タンパク質UBE3Aの表面にあって、リン酸化されると酵素活性が変化する調節部位が見つかり、ヒトの神経発達障害であるアンゲルマン症候群と自閉症の2つについて、病因に関する手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/526050b

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物性物理学:薄型トランジスターは限界を超える

Condensed-matter Physics: Flat transistor defies the limit p.51

理論的限界を超えることによって低電源電圧で動作するトランジスターが実証された。この知見は、消費電力が極めて少ない集積回路の開発への道を開くものだ。

doi: 10.1038/526051a

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ヒトゲノミクス:集団の塩基配列解読計画の始まりの終わり

Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing p.52

7年間にわたるプロジェクトの最終段階で、5つの大陸にわたる2504人のゲノム塩基配列が解読された。その結果は、ヒト集団における遺伝学的変動に関する詳細なデータの要約といえる。

doi: 10.1038/526052a

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Review

微生物学:原核生物でのCRISPR–Cas免疫

CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes p.55

The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacteria and archaea provide adaptive immunity against invading mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids; this Review describes the discovery of these systems and the mechanisms of immunity, including recent progress in establishing the molecular basis of host immunization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15386

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Articles

材料科学:マグネシウムの高い硬化と低い延性の起源

The origins of high hardening and low ductility in magnesium p.62

Practical applications of magnesium as a lightweight structural metal are limited by its high work hardening, low ductility and fracture at very low strains; now molecular dynamics simulations reveal the origins of these problems and offer a route to design magnesium alloys with improved mechanical properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature15364

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ゲノミクス:ヒトの遺伝的多様性に関する全球規模の参照データ

A global reference for human genetic variation OPEN p.68

Results for the final phase of the 1000 Genomes Project are presented including whole-genome sequencing, targeted exome sequencing, and genotyping on high-density SNP arrays for 2,504 individuals across 26 populations, providing a global reference data set to support biomedical genetics.

doi: 10.1038/nature15393

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ゲノミクス:2504例のヒトゲノムに見られる構造多様性の統合マップ

An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes OPEN p.75

The Structural Variation Analysis Group of The 1000 Genomes Project reports an integrated structural variation map based on discovery and genotyping of eight major structural variation classes in 2,504 unrelated individuals from across 26 populations; structural variation is compared within and between populations and its functional impact is quantified.

doi: 10.1038/nature15394

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ゲノミクス:UK10Kプロジェクトで明らかになった健康な状態と疾患におけるまれなバリアント

The UK10K project identifies rare variants in health and disease OPEN p.82

Low read depth sequencing of whole genomes and high read depth exomes of nearly 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals are combined to help characterize novel sequence variants, generate a highly accurate imputation reference panel and identify novel alleles associated with lipid-related traits; in addition to describing population structure and providing functional annotation of rare and low-frequency variants the authors use the data to estimate the benefits of sequencing for association studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14962

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Letters

材料科学:チャネルが原子レベルで薄いサブ熱電子トンネル電界効果トランジスター

A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel p.91

A new type of device, the band-to-band tunnel transistor, which has atomically thin molybdenum disulfide as the active channel, operates in a fundamentally different way from a conventional silicon (MOSFET) transistor; it has turn-on characteristics and low-power operation that are better than those of state-of-the-art MOSFETs or any tunnelling transistor reported so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature15387

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生物無機化学:鉄–硫黄–炭素サイトへの窒素分子の結合

Binding of dinitrogen to an iron–sulfur–carbon site p.96

A synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere is described that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe–S bond and binds N2, providing a model for the iron–molybdenum cofactor used by nitrogenase enzymes to produce ammonia.

doi: 10.1038/nature15246

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地形学:氷河ダイナミクスの関数として観測された侵食の緯度方向の変化

Observed latitudinal variations in erosion as a function of glacier dynamics p.100

Erosion and velocity data from 15 outlet glaciers covering temperate to polar glacier thermal regimes from Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula reveal that over the past century the basin-averaged erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude as a function of climate across this latitudinal transect.

doi: 10.1038/nature15385

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生物季節学:春季展葉の生物季節学的特性に地球温暖化が及ぼす影響の縮小

Declining global warming effects on the phenology of spring leaf unfolding p.104

Spring leaf unfolding has been occurring earlier in the year because of rising temperatures; however, long-term evidence in the field from 7 European tree species studied in 1,245 sites shows that this early unfolding effect is being reduced in recent years, possibly because the reducing chilling and/or insolation render trees less responsive to warming.

doi: 10.1038/nature15402

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ゲノム進化学:ゲノムおよび化石の新たなデータで明らかになったエナメル質の起源

New genomic and fossil data illuminate the origin of enamel p.108

Enamel is a tissue unique to vertebrates, and nowadays associated with teeth; here, histological material from a fossil bony fish and genomic data from an extant, armour-plated fish are analysed to show that enamel originated on the body surface and only later colonized the teeth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15259

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集団遺伝学:全ゲノム塩基配列解読によりEN1が骨密度と骨折リスクの決定因子であることが明らかになった

Whole‐genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture p.112

The extent to which low‐frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1–5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population‐specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non‐coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole‐genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population‐based genome sequencing consortium), whole‐exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low‐frequency non‐coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10−14), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10−11; ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1cre/flox mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low‐frequency non‐coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10−11). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non‐coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low‐frequency non‐coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole‐genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.

doi: 10.1038/nature14878

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ナノ生物工学:ナノ粒子を血小板膜で覆うことによる生体界面の作製

Nanoparticle biointerfacing by platelet membrane cloaking p.118

The authors report a new biomimetic nanodelivery platform in which polymeric nanoparticles enclosed in the plasma membrane of human platelets are used for disease-relevant targeting, and the therapeutic potential of the concept is demonstrated in animal models of coronary restenosis and systemic bacterial infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature15373

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ウイルス学:軟口蓋は伝染性インフルエンザウイルスの適応に重要な部位である

The soft palate is an important site of adaptation for transmissible influenza viruses p.122

Efficient airborne transmission of influenza viruses between humans is associated with use of α2,6-linked sialic acids, not α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, using a loss-of-function approach in which a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was engineered to bind α2,3 sialic acids, this study shows in ferrets that the soft palate is an important site for the switch of receptor usage to take place, and reveals that this tissue rapidly selects for transmissible influenza virus with human receptor preference.

doi: 10.1038/nature15379

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幹細胞:骨髄の深部画像化から非分裂幹細胞は主に洞様血管周囲に存在することが示される

Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal p.126

α-catulin is identified as a marker to locate functional haematopoiteic stem cells in deep imaging experiments of bone marrow, showing that α-catulin–GFP+c-kit+ cells commonly reside in perisinusoidal niches throughout the bone marrow.

doi: 10.1038/nature15250

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がん:単一細胞解析が示すヒトの転移性乳がん細胞における幹細胞プログラム

Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells p.131

Single-cell analysis of gene expression in metastatic cells from distinct human breast tumour models shows that early metastatic cells possess basal, stem and mesenchymal cell properties, whereas advanced metastatic cells have more proliferative properties and are more mature, enabling them to be targeted with an anti-proliferative compound.

doi: 10.1038/nature15260

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微生物学:抗CRISPRタンパク質によるCRISPR–Cas阻害に使われる多様な機序

Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR–Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins p.136

Bacterial cells evolved an immune system known as CRISPR–Cas to protect themselves from viral infection, triggering viruses to evolve anti-CRISPR proteins; here, three anti-CRISPR proteins are characterized, with each one interfering with the host CRISPR system at a different point.

doi: 10.1038/nature15254

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構造生物学:ヒト核膜孔複合体のin situ構造解析

In situ structural analysis of the human nuclear pore complex p.140

The most comprehensive architectural model to date of the nuclear pore complex reveals previously unknown local interactions, and a role for nucleoporin 358 in Y-complex oligomerization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15381

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