Volume 526 Number 7571



Variety of life p.5

An effort to sequence thousands of people’s genomes reaches the end of the beginning.

doi: 10.1038/526005b


Testing times p.5

The unfolding Volkswagen saga highlights the need for better funding of regulatory science — and should prompt regulators to keep a closer eye on whether their rules are working.

doi: 10.1038/526005a


Goals galore p.6

The latest global targets from the United Nations must be translated into realistic policies.

doi: 10.1038/526006a



China to launch cap-and-trade system p.13

Climate commitment could help to build momentum towards a new global pact to limit greenhouse-gas emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18440


California agriculture weathers drought — at a cost p.14

El Niño might bring relief, but longer and deeper dry spells are predicted.

doi: 10.1038/526014a


Brazilian science paralysed by economic slump p.16

From unpaid electricity bills to delayed participation in a telescope project, funding cuts bite.

doi: 10.1038/526016a


Alternative CRISPR system could improve genome editing p.17

Smaller enzyme may make process simpler and more exact.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18432


Gene-edited 'micropigs' to be sold as pets at Chinese institute p.18

The pigs are endearing but scientists warn that they may be a distraction from more serious research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18448

数学者のTerence Taoが、Erdős discrepancy problemを証明。

Maths whizz solves a master’s riddle p.19

Terence Tao builds on an online collaboration to successfully attack the Erdős discrepancy problem.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18441


Archimedes’ legendary sphere brought to life p.19

Recreation of a 2,000-year-old model of the Universe to appear in exhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18431

News Features


The future of cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin and beyond p.21


doi: 10.1038/526021a


The mountain-top battle over the Thirty Meter Telescope p.24


doi: 10.1038/526024a

News & Views


Astrophysics: Primordial stars brought to light p.46


doi: 10.1038/526046a


Nanotechnology: Platelet mimicry p.47


doi: 10.1038/nature15218


Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature15633


Neurodevelopmental disease: A molecular tightrope p.50


doi: 10.1038/526050b


Condensed-matter Physics: Flat transistor defies the limit p.51


doi: 10.1038/526051a


Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing p.52


doi: 10.1038/526052a



CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes p.55

The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacteria and archaea provide adaptive immunity against invading mobile genetic elements such as phages and plasmids; this Review describes the discovery of these systems and the mechanisms of immunity, including recent progress in establishing the molecular basis of host immunization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15386



The origins of high hardening and low ductility in magnesium p.62

Practical applications of magnesium as a lightweight structural metal are limited by its high work hardening, low ductility and fracture at very low strains; now molecular dynamics simulations reveal the origins of these problems and offer a route to design magnesium alloys with improved mechanical properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature15364


A global reference for human genetic variation OPEN p.68

Results for the final phase of the 1000 Genomes Project are presented including whole-genome sequencing, targeted exome sequencing, and genotyping on high-density SNP arrays for 2,504 individuals across 26 populations, providing a global reference data set to support biomedical genetics.

doi: 10.1038/nature15393


An integrated map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes OPEN p.75

The Structural Variation Analysis Group of The 1000 Genomes Project reports an integrated structural variation map based on discovery and genotyping of eight major structural variation classes in 2,504 unrelated individuals from across 26 populations; structural variation is compared within and between populations and its functional impact is quantified.

doi: 10.1038/nature15394


The UK10K project identifies rare variants in health and disease OPEN p.82

Low read depth sequencing of whole genomes and high read depth exomes of nearly 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals are combined to help characterize novel sequence variants, generate a highly accurate imputation reference panel and identify novel alleles associated with lipid-related traits; in addition to describing population structure and providing functional annotation of rare and low-frequency variants the authors use the data to estimate the benefits of sequencing for association studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14962



A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel p.91

A new type of device, the band-to-band tunnel transistor, which has atomically thin molybdenum disulfide as the active channel, operates in a fundamentally different way from a conventional silicon (MOSFET) transistor; it has turn-on characteristics and low-power operation that are better than those of state-of-the-art MOSFETs or any tunnelling transistor reported so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature15387


Binding of dinitrogen to an iron–sulfur–carbon site p.96

A synthetic complex with a sulfur-rich coordination sphere is described that, upon reduction, breaks an Fe–S bond and binds N2, providing a model for the iron–molybdenum cofactor used by nitrogenase enzymes to produce ammonia.

doi: 10.1038/nature15246


Observed latitudinal variations in erosion as a function of glacier dynamics p.100

Erosion and velocity data from 15 outlet glaciers covering temperate to polar glacier thermal regimes from Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula reveal that over the past century the basin-averaged erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude as a function of climate across this latitudinal transect.

doi: 10.1038/nature15385


Declining global warming effects on the phenology of spring leaf unfolding p.104

Spring leaf unfolding has been occurring earlier in the year because of rising temperatures; however, long-term evidence in the field from 7 European tree species studied in 1,245 sites shows that this early unfolding effect is being reduced in recent years, possibly because the reducing chilling and/or insolation render trees less responsive to warming.

doi: 10.1038/nature15402


New genomic and fossil data illuminate the origin of enamel p.108

Enamel is a tissue unique to vertebrates, and nowadays associated with teeth; here, histological material from a fossil bony fish and genomic data from an extant, armour-plated fish are analysed to show that enamel originated on the body surface and only later colonized the teeth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15259


Whole‐genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture p.112

Human population genomic studies, including whole‐genome sequencing, were undertaken to identify determinants of bone mineral density (BMD), a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures. Non‐coding variants with large effects on BMD and fractures were identified near the EN1 locus and mouse studies confirmed this gene has an important role in skeletal biology.

doi: 10.1038/nature14878


Nanoparticle biointerfacing by platelet membrane cloaking p.118

The authors report a new biomimetic nanodelivery platform in which polymeric nanoparticles enclosed in the plasma membrane of human platelets are used for disease-relevant targeting, and the therapeutic potential of the concept is demonstrated in animal models of coronary restenosis and systemic bacterial infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature15373


The soft palate is an important site of adaptation for transmissible influenza viruses p.122

Efficient airborne transmission of influenza viruses between humans is associated with use of α2,6-linked sialic acids, not α2,3-linked sialic acids; however, using a loss-of-function approach in which a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was engineered to bind α2,3 sialic acids, this study shows in ferrets that the soft palate is an important site for the switch of receptor usage to take place, and reveals that this tissue rapidly selects for transmissible influenza virus with human receptor preference.

doi: 10.1038/nature15379


Deep imaging of bone marrow shows non-dividing stem cells are mainly perisinusoidal p.126

α-catulin is identified as a marker to locate functional haematopoiteic stem cells in deep imaging experiments of bone marrow, showing that α-catulin–GFP+c-kit+ cells commonly reside in perisinusoidal niches throughout the bone marrow.

doi: 10.1038/nature15250


Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells p.131

Single-cell analysis of gene expression in metastatic cells from distinct human breast tumour models shows that early metastatic cells possess basal, stem and mesenchymal cell properties, whereas advanced metastatic cells have more proliferative properties and are more mature, enabling them to be targeted with an anti-proliferative compound.

doi: 10.1038/nature15260


Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR–Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins p.136

Bacterial cells evolved an immune system known as CRISPR–Cas to protect themselves from viral infection, triggering viruses to evolve anti-CRISPR proteins; here, three anti-CRISPR proteins are characterized, with each one interfering with the host CRISPR system at a different point.

doi: 10.1038/nature15254

構造生物学:ヒト核膜孔複合体のin situ構造解析

In situ structural analysis of the human nuclear pore complex p.140

The most comprehensive architectural model to date of the nuclear pore complex reveals previously unknown local interactions, and a role for nucleoporin 358 in Y-complex oligomerization.

doi: 10.1038/nature15381

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