Austerity bites p.255

If the UK government is serious about science, now is the time to prove it.

doi: 10.1038/523255b

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Lessons must be learned after psychology torture inquiry p.255

An independent report on the American Psychological Association reveals the extent to which some psychologists colluded with US military and intelligence agencies to allow torture of prisoners.

doi: 10.1038/523255a

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An education p.256

The world can no longer afford to support learning systems in which only the most capable students can thrive.

doi: 10.1038/523256a

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Smart shots bring Nigeria to brink of polio eradication p.263

The nation has embraced the latest research and innovative approaches to vaccination.

doi: 10.1038/523263a

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Alzheimer's data lawsuit is sign of growing tensions p.265

Battle between California universities raises questions about research ownership.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17932

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‘Organs-on-chips’ go mainstream p.266

Drug companies put in vitro systems through their paces.

doi: 10.1038/523266a

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Forsaken pentaquark particle spotted at CERN p.267

Exotic subatomic particle confirmed at Large Hadron Collider after earlier false sightings.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17968

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California’s anti-vaping bill goes up in smoke p.267

Demise of legislation highlights rise of e-cigarette lobbying.

doi: 10.1038/523267a

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First robust genetic links to depression emerge p.268

Discoveries energize hunt for genes connected to mental illness.

doi: 10.1038/523268a

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News Features


The scientist of the future p.271


doi: 10.1038/523271a

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Why we are teaching science wrong, and how to make it right p.272


doi: 10.1038/523272a

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Reading, writing and high-energy physics p.276


doi: 10.1038/523276a

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News & Views


Developmental biology: Nanotubes in the niche p.292


doi: 10.1038/nature14631

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Earth science: Big geochemistry p.293


doi: 10.1038/523293a

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Cancer: A dendritic-cell brake on antitumour immunity p.294


doi: 10.1038/523294a

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Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle p.296


doi: 10.1038/523296a

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Systems biology: Network evolution hinges on history p.297


doi: 10.1038/nature14537

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Symbiosis: Receptive to infection p.298


doi: 10.1038/nature14632

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Volcanic–plutonic parity and the differentiation of the continental crust p.301

A global geochemical data set of volcanic and plutonic rocks indicates that differentiation trends from primitive basaltic to felsic compositions for volcanic versus plutonic samples are generally indistinguishable in subduction-zone settings, but are divergent in continental rifts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14584

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Receptor-mediated exopolysaccharide perception controls bacterial infection p.308

This paper describes the discovery of the exopolysaccharide receptor (Epr3) in plants, and shows that its expression is induced upon perception of the bacterial Nod factors; the EPR3 receptor recognizes exopolysaccharides on the surface of rhizobia, thus controlling the symbiotic infection of the roots of legumes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14611

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Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer p.313

Progesterones, oestrogens and their receptors (PR, ERα and ERβ) are essential in normal breast development and homeostasis, as well as in breast cancer; here it is shown that PR controls ERα function by redirecting where ERα binds to the chromatin, acting as a proliferative brake in ERα+ breast tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature14583

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Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the ‘blue hook’ stars of ω Centauri p.318

Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the ‘blue hook’ stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich ‘second generation’ of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster’s central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash–mixing events in massive globular clusters.

doi: 10.1038/nature14516

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Laboratory confirmation of C60+ as the carrier of two diffuse interstellar bands p.322

The diffuse interstellar bands are absorption lines seen towards reddened stars. None of the molecules responsible for these bands have been conclusively identified. Two bands at 9,632 ångströms and 9,577 ångströms were reported in 1994, and were suggested to arise from C60+ molecules (ref. 3), on the basis of the proximity of these wavelengths to the absorption bands of C60+ measured in a neon matrix. Confirmation of this assignment requires the gas-phase spectrum of C60+. Here we report laboratory spectroscopy of C60+ in the gas phase, cooled to 5.8 kelvin. The absorption spectrum has maxima at 9,632.7 ± 0.1 ångströms and 9,577.5 ± 0.1 ångströms, and the full widths at half-maximum of these bands are 2.2 ± 0.2 ångströms and 2.5 ± 0.2 ångströms, respectively. We conclude that we have positively identified the diffuse interstellar bands at 9,632 ångströms and 9,577 ångströms as arising from C60+ in the interstellar medium.

doi: 10.1038/nature14566

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Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids p.324

Organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots are combined in the solution phase to produce epitaxially aligned ‘dots-in-a-matrix’ crystals that have both the excellent electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix and the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots.

doi: 10.1038/nature14563

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Nanotubes mediate niche–stem-cell signalling in the Drosophila testis p.329

Drosophila male germline stem cells form previously unrecognized structures, microtubule-based nanotubes, which extend into the hub, a major niche component, to mediate the niche–stem-cell signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14602

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Supramolecular assemblies underpin turnover of outer membrane proteins in bacteria p.333

Fluorescent labelling is used to show that in E. coli, outer membrane protein (OMP) turnover is passive and binary in nature, and OMPs cluster to form islands in which diffusion of individual proteins is restricted owing to lateral interactions with other OMPs; new OMPs are inserted mostly at mid-cell, meaning that old OMP islands are displaced to the poles of growing cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14461

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Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels p.337

The central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance, but the route that immune cells take to exit the brain has been unclear as it had been thought to lack a classical lymphatic drainage system; here functional lymphatic vessels able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid are shown to be located in the brain meninges.

doi: 10.1038/nature14432

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免疫学:HDLに結合したスフィンゴシン 1-リン酸はリンパ球形成と神経炎症を抑制する

HDL-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate restrains lymphopoiesis and neuroinflammation p.342

Apolipoprotein-M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is found to restrain the generation of new lymphocytes—and, consequently, adaptive immune responses—by activating the S1P1 receptor on bone marrow lymphocyte progenitors in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14462

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Conversion of abiraterone to D4A drives anti-tumour activity in prostate cancer p.347

The drug abiraterone is converted to Δ4-abiraterone (D4A) in mice and patients with prostate cancer, which has more potent anti-tumour activity and may lead to more effective therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14406

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Improving survival by exploiting tumour dependence on stabilized mutant p53 for treatment p.352

Novel hotspot mutant p53 gain-of-function mouse model shows that tumours depend on its sustained expression, and genetic and pharmacological approaches reveal mutant p53 as an actionable cancer drug target.

doi: 10.1038/nature14430

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A noisy linear map underlies oscillations in cell size and gene expression in bacteria p.357

Quantification of single-cell growth over long periods of time in E. coli shows transient oscillations in cell size, with periods stretching across more than ten generations; a noisy negative feedback on cell-size control is proposed in which cells with a small initial size tend to divide later than cells with a large initial size with implications for the genetic and physiological processes required.

doi: 10.1038/nature14562

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Intersecting transcription networks constrain gene regulatory evolution p.361

Epistatic interactions, whereby a mutation's effect is contingent on another mutation, have been shown to constrain evolution within single proteins, and how such interactions arise in gene regulatory networks has remained unclear; here the appearance of pheromone-response regulator binding sites in the regulatory DNA of the a-specific genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are shown to have required specific changes in a second pathway during the evolution from its common ancestor with Candida albicans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14613

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Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes p.366

Retroviruses such as HIV rely on the intasome, a tetramer of integrase protein bound to the viral DNA ends interacting with host chromatin, for integration into the host genome; the structure of the intasome as it interacts with a nucleosome is now solved, giving insight into the integration process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14495

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