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Editorials

米国心理学会(APA)は、過去の過ちを認め、拷問まがいの尋問を行っている軍や諜報機関との関係を解消すべきだ。

Lessons must be learned after psychology torture inquiry p.255

An independent report on the American Psychological Association reveals the extent to which some psychologists colluded with US military and intelligence agencies to allow torture of prisoners.

doi: 10.1038/523255a

英国は、科学への締め付けを緩め、振興する方向へと舵を切るべきだ。

Austerity bites p.255

If the UK government is serious about science, now is the time to prove it.

doi: 10.1038/523255b

科学教育のあり方を、講義中心の学習から能動学習へと変えるべきだ。

An education p.256

The world can no longer afford to support learning systems in which only the most capable students can thrive.

doi: 10.1038/523256a

News

ワクチン接種の取り組みが功を奏し、ナイジェリアでのポリオ根絶が間近に。

Smart shots bring Nigeria to brink of polio eradication p.263

The nation has embraced the latest research and innovative approaches to vaccination.

doi: 10.1038/523263a

米国カルフォルニア大学サンディエゴ校が、研究データを持って別の研究機関に異動した研究者に対して訴訟を。

Alzheimer's data lawsuit is sign of growing tensions p.265

Battle between California universities raises questions about research ownership.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17932

「臓器チップ」が、新薬開発の表舞台に。

‘Organs-on-chips’ go mainstream p.266

Drug companies put in vitro systems through their paces.

doi: 10.1038/523266a

CERNの大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)が、ペンタクォーク粒子を発見。

Forsaken pentaquark particle spotted at CERN p.267

Exotic subatomic particle confirmed at Large Hadron Collider after earlier false sightings.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17968

米国カリフォルニア州の電子タバコ禁止案が、ロビー活動によって、はかない煙に。

California’s anti-vaping bill goes up in smoke p.267

Demise of legislation highlights rise of e-cigarette lobbying.

doi: 10.1038/523267a

うつと遺伝子との関連を示す、初めての確実な証拠が。

First robust genetic links to depression emerge p.268

Discoveries energize hunt for genes connected to mental illness.

doi: 10.1038/523268a

News Features

未来の科学者

The scientist of the future p.271

今週号では、次世代の科学者を育てるには何が必要かを特集する。

doi: 10.1038/523271a

科学教育の科学

Why we are teaching science wrong, and how to make it right p.272

能動的な問題解決学習は、講義という受動的な学習よりも科学への理解を深めるが、現行の教育方法を変えたがらない大学教官もいる。

doi: 10.1038/523272a

内なる科学者を解き放つ

Reading, writing and high-energy physics p.276

世界中の教育者たちが、幼い子供たちを未来の科学者に育てる、新しい方法をさまざまに試みている。

doi: 10.1038/523276a

News & Views

フォーラム:発生生物学:ニッチのナノチューブ

Developmental biology: Nanotubes in the niche p.292

ショウジョウバエでは、精巣中の幹細胞からの突起が調節ハブ中の細胞まで伸びていて、細胞間のシグナル伝達や幹細胞の維持に関わっていることが分かった。このフォーラムでは、この知見の持つ意味が2つの視点から論じられている。

doi: 10.1038/nature14631

地球科学:ビッグな地球化学研究

Earth science: Big geochemistry p.293

30万を超える数の岩石の組成データをまとめた研究によって、大陸地殻がどのようにして形成されたかという100年間にわたって続いてきた論争に関する重要な手掛かりが得られ、大陸地殻の成長の理論に新たな制約が加えられた。

doi: 10.1038/523293a

がん:抗腫瘍免疫にブレーキをかける樹状細胞

Cancer: A dendritic-cell brake on antitumour immunity p.294

樹状細胞でストレス応答と転写因子XBP1が活性化されると、この細胞の抗腫瘍免疫応答を誘導する能力が制限されることが、卵巣がんのマウスモデルで今回明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/523294a

宇宙化学:星間の謎を解くフラーレン

Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle p.296

星間物質のスペクトルで見つかった2つの近赤外吸収線が「バッキーボール」イオンからのものであることが実験によって確認された。このことは、1世紀にわたって解かれなかった宇宙化学の謎の答えを明らかにするものだ。

doi: 10.1038/523296a

システム生物学:歴史に左右されるネットワーク進化

Systems biology: Network evolution hinges on history p.297

タンパク質に生じた変異の影響は、以前に変異が起きたかどうかに左右されることがある。このような歴史的偶然性もまた、遺伝子調節ネットワークの進化の際には重要なのだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14537

共生:感染を受け入れる

Symbiosis: Receptive to infection p.298

植物のタンパク質であるEPR3が、植物と共生する細菌の表面を覆っている細胞外多糖分子に対する受容体として働いているらしいことが分かった。研究のこのような進歩によって、共生関係で相手を認識する仕組みについての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14632

Articles

地球化学:火山岩と深成岩の同質性と大陸地殻の分化

Volcanic–plutonic parity and the differentiation of the continental crust p.301

A global geochemical data set of volcanic and plutonic rocks indicates that differentiation trends from primitive basaltic to felsic compositions for volcanic versus plutonic samples are generally indistinguishable in subduction-zone settings, but are divergent in continental rifts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14584

植物科学:受容体を介した菌体外多糖の認識による細菌感染の制御

Receptor-mediated exopolysaccharide perception controls bacterial infection p.308

This paper describes the discovery of the exopolysaccharide receptor (Epr3) in plants, and shows that its expression is induced upon perception of the bacterial Nod factors; the EPR3 receptor recognizes exopolysaccharides on the surface of rhizobia, thus controlling the symbiotic infection of the roots of legumes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14611

がん:プロゲステロン受容体は乳がんでERαの作用を調節する

Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer p.313

Progesterones, oestrogens and their receptors (PR, ERα and ERβ) are essential in normal breast development and homeostasis, as well as in breast cancer; here it is shown that PR controls ERα function by redirecting where ERα binds to the chromatin, acting as a proliferative brake in ERα+ breast tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature14583

Letters

宇宙物理学:ケンタウルス座ω星団の「ブルーフック星」の前駆天体である急速に回転する第二世代の星

Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the ‘blue hook’ stars of ω Centauri p.318

Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the ‘blue hook’ stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich ‘second generation’ of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster’s central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash–mixing events in massive globular clusters.

doi: 10.1038/nature14516

宇宙化学:2つの拡散星間バンドの担体としてのC60+の実験室における確認

Laboratory confirmation of C60+ as the carrier of two diffuse interstellar bands p.322

The diffuse interstellar bands are absorption lines seen towards reddened stars. None of the molecules responsible for these bands have been conclusively identified. Two bands at 9,632 ångströms and 9,577 ångströms were reported in 1994, and were suggested to arise from C60+ molecules (ref. 3), on the basis of the proximity of these wavelengths to the absorption bands of C60+ measured in a neon matrix. Confirmation of this assignment requires the gas-phase spectrum of C60+. Here we report laboratory spectroscopy of C60+ in the gas phase, cooled to 5.8 kelvin. The absorption spectrum has maxima at 9,632.7 ± 0.1 ångströms and 9,577.5 ± 0.1 ångströms, and the full widths at half-maximum of these bands are 2.2 ± 0.2 ångströms and 2.5 ± 0.2 ångströms, respectively. We conclude that we have positively identified the diffuse interstellar bands at 9,632 ångströms and 9,577 ångströms as arising from C60+ in the interstellar medium.

doi: 10.1038/nature14566

ナノスケール材料:量子ドットを含むペロブスカイトの固体

Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids p.324

Organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots are combined in the solution phase to produce epitaxially aligned ‘dots-in-a-matrix’ crystals that have both the excellent electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix and the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots.

doi: 10.1038/nature14563

発生生物学:ショウジョウバエの精巣ではナノチューブがニッチ–幹細胞シグナル伝達に関与している

Nanotubes mediate niche–stem-cell signalling in the Drosophila testis p.329

Drosophila male germline stem cells form previously unrecognized structures, microtubule-based nanotubes, which extend into the hub, a major niche component, to mediate the niche–stem-cell signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14602

微生物学:超分子集合体は細菌の外膜タンパク質の代謝回転を支えている

Supramolecular assemblies underpin turnover of outer membrane proteins in bacteria p.333

Fluorescent labelling is used to show that in E. coli, outer membrane protein (OMP) turnover is passive and binary in nature, and OMPs cluster to form islands in which diffusion of individual proteins is restricted owing to lateral interactions with other OMPs; new OMPs are inserted mostly at mid-cell, meaning that old OMP islands are displaced to the poles of growing cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14461

神経免疫学:中枢神経系リンパ管の構造と機能の特徴

Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels p.337

The central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance, but the route that immune cells take to exit the brain has been unclear as it had been thought to lack a classical lymphatic drainage system; here functional lymphatic vessels able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid are shown to be located in the brain meninges.

doi: 10.1038/nature14432

免疫学:HDLに結合したスフィンゴシン 1-リン酸はリンパ球形成と神経炎症を抑制する

HDL-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate restrains lymphopoiesis and neuroinflammation p.342

Apolipoprotein-M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is found to restrain the generation of new lymphocytes—and, consequently, adaptive immune responses—by activating the S1P1 receptor on bone marrow lymphocyte progenitors in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature14462

がん:アビラテロンのD4Aへの変換は前立腺がんで抗腫瘍活性を高める

Conversion of abiraterone to D4A drives anti-tumour activity in prostate cancer p.347

The drug abiraterone is converted to Δ4-abiraterone (D4A) in mice and patients with prostate cancer, which has more potent anti-tumour activity and may lead to more effective therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14406

がん:安定化された変異型p53への腫瘍の依存性を治療に利用することで生存期間が延長する

Improving survival by exploiting tumour dependence on stabilized mutant p53 for treatment p.352

Novel hotspot mutant p53 gain-of-function mouse model shows that tumours depend on its sustained expression, and genetic and pharmacological approaches reveal mutant p53 as an actionable cancer drug target.

doi: 10.1038/nature14430

システム生物学:細菌のサイズや遺伝子発現の振動の根底になっているのはノイズの多い線形写像である

A noisy linear map underlies oscillations in cell size and gene expression in bacteria p.357

Quantification of single-cell growth over long periods of time in E. coli shows transient oscillations in cell size, with periods stretching across more than ten generations; a noisy negative feedback on cell-size control is proposed in which cells with a small initial size tend to divide later than cells with a large initial size with implications for the genetic and physiological processes required.

doi: 10.1038/nature14562

システム生物学:交差する転写ネットワークが遺伝子調節の進化を制限する

Intersecting transcription networks constrain gene regulatory evolution p.361

Epistatic interactions, whereby a mutation's effect is contingent on another mutation, have been shown to constrain evolution within single proteins, and how such interactions arise in gene regulatory networks has remained unclear; here the appearance of pheromone-response regulator binding sites in the regulatory DNA of the a-specific genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are shown to have required specific changes in a second pathway during the evolution from its common ancestor with Candida albicans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14613

構造生物学:ヌクレオソームへのレトロウイルス組み込みの構造基盤

Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes p.366

Retroviruses such as HIV rely on the intasome, a tetramer of integrase protein bound to the viral DNA ends interacting with host chromatin, for integration into the host genome; the structure of the intasome as it interacts with a nucleosome is now solved, giving insight into the integration process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14495

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