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Editorials

オーストラリアでの生体物質特許の有効性を認めるという決定は、診断薬の開発を妨げる恐れがある。

Genetic rights and wrongs p.143

Australia’s decision to uphold a patent on biological material is in danger of hampering the development of diagnostic tests.

doi: 10.1038/513143a

西アフリカのエボラ出血熱の流行を食い止めるためには、国や研究機関の総力を挙げた強力な介入が必要だ。

Ebola: time to act p.143

Governments and research organizations must mobilize to end the West African outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/513143b

3Dプリンターの宇宙への打ち上げは、宇宙探査での「DIY」作業に役立つ優れた試みだ。

Orbital assembly p.144

The space launch of a 3D printer does not herald a brave new era — but it is a good start.

doi: 10.1038/513144a

News

スコットランドの独立問題をめぐり、科学者の意見に相違が。

Scientists split over Scottish independence vote p.151

Research could founder or flourish if Scotland leaves the United Kingdom.

doi: 10.1038/513151a

木星の衛星エウロパで、地球の地殻の移動に似た、表面を覆う厚い氷層の移動が明らかに。

Plate tectonics found on Europa p.153

Discovery buoys bid for mission to Jovian moon.

doi: 10.1038/513153a

2014年8月3日に中国・雲南省で起きたマグニチュード6.5の地震は、揚子江上流の2つの巨大なダム湖と関連があることを示すデータが。

Chinese data hint at trigger for fatal quake p.154

Seismic activity started to rise just as two giant reservoirs on upper Yangtze were being filled with water.

doi: 10.1038/513154a

NASAが、宇宙に3Dプリンターを持ち込む計画を。

NASA to send 3D printer into space p.156

Machine will let astronauts create parts to order.

doi: 10.1038/513156a

News Features

野生生物のエネルギー:適者生存

Wildlife energy: Survival of the fittest p.157

加速度計を利用することで、動物が生存し続けるのに必要なエネルギーがどのくらいかを測定できそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/513157a

視覚障害の治療:視覚を追い求めて

Curing blindness: Vision quest p.160

さまざまな技術により、これまでは不可能だった視覚障害者の視力回復に、希望が見え始めている。

doi: 10.1038/513160a

News & Views

ゲノミクス:枝渡りするテナガザルの揺れ動く遺伝子

Genomics: Something to swing about p.174

テナガザルのゲノムが初めて解読され、進化的に短い時間枠内でゲノムの切り混ぜを起こせる仕組みについて、またテナガザルがどのようにして東南アジアの密林に適応し、多様化していったのか、その状況についての手がかりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/513174a

微生物学:ワクチン接種を受けた細菌

Microbiology: Bacteria get vaccinated p.175

正常に機能するウイルスに対する適応免疫を細菌が迅速に発達させるのには、複製ができない欠陥ウイルスにあらかじめ感染しておくのが重要であることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/513175a

大気化学:大気を清浄化するラジカルの分布に南北の違いなし

Atmospheric chemistry: No equatorial divide for a cleansing radical p.176

捉えにくいヒドロキシルラジカルの全球分布が絞り込まれたことで、大気の清浄化に関わるこの物質の濃度を制御する複雑かつ相互に関連し合う要因についての解明が一歩進みそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/513176a

持続可能な開発:道路建設の将来性と危険

Sustainable Development: The promise and perils of roads p.178

道路建設がもたらすはずの経済的利益と、それが環境に及ぼす被害とを予想した世界的マップは、持続可能な開発を計画するための手段の1つとなる。

doi: 10.1038/nature13744

海洋学:沈むものは必ず浮き上がる

Oceanography: What goes down must come up p.179

過去30年間にわたって集められた、海洋混合の高分解能測定値がまとめられ、海洋深層水が表層に戻っていく仕組みが明らかになった。こうした過程は地球の気候を調節するのに役立っている。

doi: 10.1038/513179a

感覚系:聴覚処理は運動を支配する

Sensory systems: Sound processing takes motor control p.180

マウスが動く際には、運動を制御する脳領域と聴覚制御に関わる脳領域を結び付けているニューロンが聴覚応答を抑制することが分かった。しかし、この抑制がなぜ起こるのか、その理由はまだはっきりしていない。

doi: 10.1038/nature13658

宇宙物理学:クエーサーの複雑性を単純化する

Astrophysics: Quasar complexity simplified p.181

質量降着中の超大質量ブラックホールはクエーサーと呼ばれ、宇宙の灯台としても知られているが、ほぼ2万個のクエーサーからなるサンプルの解析から、クエーサーが示す多様な性質のほとんどが、たった2つの量によって説明できることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/513181a

Articles

化学:オーダーメイドの形状を持つ有機分子のアセンブリーライン合成

Assembly-line synthesis of organic molecules with tailored shapes p.183

The iterative, reagent-controlled homologation of a boronic ester is used to create an ‘assembly line’ capable of synthesizing organic molecules that contain ten contiguous, stereochemically defined methyl groups and which have different shapes depending on the stereochemistry of those groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature13711

神経科学:聴覚皮質の随伴発射のシナプスおよび回路の基盤

A synaptic and circuit basis for corollary discharge in the auditory cortex p.189

Here auditory cortex excitatory neurons are shown to decrease their activity during locomotion, grooming and vocalization, and this decrease was paralleled by increased activity in inhibitory interneurons; these findings provide a circuit basis for how self-motion and external sensory signals can be integrated to potentially facilitate hearing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13724

ゲノミクス:テナガザルのゲノムと小型類人猿の核型の高速進化

Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes OPEN p.195

The genome of the gibbon, a tree-dwelling ape from Asia positioned between Old World monkeys and the great apes, is presented, providing insights into the evolutionary history of gibbon species and their accelerated karyotypes, as well as evidence for selection of genes such as those for forelimb development and connective tissue that may be important for locomotion through trees.

doi: 10.1038/nature13679

がん:胃腺がんの包括的な分子特性解析

Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma OPEN p.202

The Cancer Genome Atlas reports on molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas and proposes a new classification of gastric cancers into 4 subtypes, which should help with clinical assessment and trials of targeted therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13480

Letters

宇宙:降着と方向によって統一されるクエーサーの多様性

The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation p.210

Analysis of archival quasar data reveals that two quantities — the Eddington ratio and orientation — explain most of the diverse characteristics of quasars.

doi: 10.1038/nature13712

材料:単層二硫化タングステンにおける励起子暗状態の精査

Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide p.214

A series of long-lived excitons in a monolayer of tungsten disulphide are found to have strong binding energy and an energy dependence on orbital momentum that significantly deviates from conventional, three-dimensional, behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature13734

大気科学:ヒドロキシルラジカルの南北半球間の均一性に関する観測的証拠

Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity p.219

Observations of methyl chloroform combined with an atmospheric transport model predict a Northern to Southern Hemisphere hydroxyl ratio of slightly less than 1, whereas commonly used atmospheric chemistry models predict ratios 15–45% higher.

doi: 10.1038/nature13721

気候:南極の寒冷反転期における熱帯アンデス山脈の氷河の大前進

A major advance of tropical Andean glaciers during the Antarctic cold reversal p.224

A moraine chronology determined by surface exposure dating shows that glaciers in the northern tropical Andes expanded to a larger extent during the Antarctic cold reversal (14,500 to 12,900 years ago) than during the Younger Dryas stadial (12,800 to 11,500 years ago), contrary to previous studies; as a result, previous chronologies and climate interpretations from tropical glaciers may need to be revisited.

doi: 10.1038/nature13546

環境:道路建設の世界的戦略

A global strategy for road building p.229

A global zoning scheme is proposed to limit the environmental costs of road building while maximizing its benefits for human development, by discriminating among areas where road building would have high environmental costs but relatively low agricultural advantage, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural production with relatively modest environmental costs, and ‘conflict areas’ where road building may have large agricultural benefits but also high environmental costs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13717

進化:胎盤の進化は胎生魚の性選択の変化を駆動する

The evolution of the placenta drives a shift in sexual selection in livebearing fish p.233

In poeciliid fish, the evolution of the placenta is associated with polyandry in females and correlates with a suite of phenotypic and behavioural traits in males.

doi: 10.1038/nature13451

免疫:ピリンインフラマソームは細菌によるRho GTPアーゼ修飾の自然免疫における認識を担う

Innate immune sensing of bacterial modifications of Rho GTPases by the Pyrin inflammasome p.237

The Pyrin inflammasome detects the presence of a pathogen not through recognition of a microbial molecule but by the activity of a bacterial toxin that modifies host Rho activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13449

微生物学:ウイルス標識法によって、Synechococcus属細菌に感染するウイルスのゲノム配列空間で離散する複数のウイルス集団が明らかになる

Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space p.242

The metagenome of uncultured, Pacific Ocean viruses linked to a ubiquitous cyanobacteria is characterized using viral-tagging, revealing discrete populations in viral sequence space that includes previously cultivated populations and new populations missed in isolate-based studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13459

植物科学:CO2による気孔形成制御にはカルボニックアンヒドラーゼ、EPF2と新規なプロテアーゼが関わっている

Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development p.246

The continuing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations suppresses the development of stomatal pores, and thus gas exchange, in plant leaves on a global scale; now, a framework of mechanisms by which carbon dioxide represses development has been identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature13452

がん:フルクトース-1,6-ビスホスファターゼは腎臓がんのプログレッションに拮抗する

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase opposes renal carcinoma progression p.251

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is shown to be depleted in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and inhibits ccRCC progression by antagonizing glycolytic flux in renal tubular epithelial cells and by restraining cell proliferation, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway in von Hippel–Lindau-protein-deficient ccRCC cells by blocking hypoxia-inducible factor function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13557

構造生物学:mRNAヘアピンへのTARBP2の結合を介した転移抑制因子転写産物の不安定化

Metastasis-suppressor transcript destabilization through TARBP2 binding of mRNA hairpins p.256

Linear sequence elements within messenger RNAs are known to be targeted by regulatory factors such as microRNAs for degradation, a process that has been implicated in disease; now, non-linear regulatory structural elements within mRNAs are shown also to be targeted, with the resulting mRNA destabilization mediating breast cancer metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13466

構造生物学:光化学系IIの、フェムト秒X線レーザーを用いた連続時分割結晶学の手法による研究

Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser p.261

Femtosecond X-ray pulses were used to obtain diffraction data on photosystem II, revealing conformational changes as the complex transitions from the dark S1 state to the double-pumped S3 state; the time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography technique enables structural determination of protein conformations that are highly prone to traditional radiation damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature13453

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