Genetic rights and wrongs p.143

Australia’s decision to uphold a patent on biological material is in danger of hampering the development of diagnostic tests.

doi: 10.1038/513143a

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Ebola: time to act p.143

Governments and research organizations must mobilize to end the West African outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/513143b

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Orbital assembly p.144

The space launch of a 3D printer does not herald a brave new era — but it is a good start.

doi: 10.1038/513144a

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Scientists split over Scottish independence vote p.151

Research could founder or flourish if Scotland leaves the United Kingdom.

doi: 10.1038/513151a

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Plate tectonics found on Europa p.153

Discovery buoys bid for mission to Jovian moon.

doi: 10.1038/513153a

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Chinese data hint at trigger for fatal quake p.154

Seismic activity started to rise just as two giant reservoirs on upper Yangtze were being filled with water.

doi: 10.1038/513154a

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NASA to send 3D printer into space p.156

Machine will let astronauts create parts to order.

doi: 10.1038/513156a

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News Features


Wildlife energy: Survival of the fittest p.157


doi: 10.1038/513157a

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Curing blindness: Vision quest p.160


doi: 10.1038/513160a

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News & Views


Genomics: Something to swing about p.174


doi: 10.1038/513174a

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Microbiology: Bacteria get vaccinated p.175


doi: 10.1038/513175a

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Atmospheric chemistry: No equatorial divide for a cleansing radical p.176


doi: 10.1038/513176a

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Sustainable Development: The promise and perils of roads p.178


doi: 10.1038/nature13744

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Oceanography: What goes down must come up p.179


doi: 10.1038/513179a

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Sensory systems: Sound processing takes motor control p.180


doi: 10.1038/nature13658

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Astrophysics: Quasar complexity simplified p.181


doi: 10.1038/513181a

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Assembly-line synthesis of organic molecules with tailored shapes p.183

The iterative, reagent-controlled homologation of a boronic ester is used to create an ‘assembly line’ capable of synthesizing organic molecules that contain ten contiguous, stereochemically defined methyl groups and which have different shapes depending on the stereochemistry of those groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature13711

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A synaptic and circuit basis for corollary discharge in the auditory cortex p.189

Here auditory cortex excitatory neurons are shown to decrease their activity during locomotion, grooming and vocalization, and this decrease was paralleled by increased activity in inhibitory interneurons; these findings provide a circuit basis for how self-motion and external sensory signals can be integrated to potentially facilitate hearing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13724

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Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes OPEN p.195

The genome of the gibbon, a tree-dwelling ape from Asia positioned between Old World monkeys and the great apes, is presented, providing insights into the evolutionary history of gibbon species and their accelerated karyotypes, as well as evidence for selection of genes such as those for forelimb development and connective tissue that may be important for locomotion through trees.

doi: 10.1038/nature13679

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Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma OPEN p.202

The Cancer Genome Atlas reports on molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas and proposes a new classification of gastric cancers into 4 subtypes, which should help with clinical assessment and trials of targeted therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13480

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The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation p.210

Analysis of archival quasar data reveals that two quantities — the Eddington ratio and orientation — explain most of the diverse characteristics of quasars.

doi: 10.1038/nature13712

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Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide p.214

A series of long-lived excitons in a monolayer of tungsten disulphide are found to have strong binding energy and an energy dependence on orbital momentum that significantly deviates from conventional, three-dimensional, behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature13734

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Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity p.219

Observations of methyl chloroform combined with an atmospheric transport model predict a Northern to Southern Hemisphere hydroxyl ratio of slightly less than 1, whereas commonly used atmospheric chemistry models predict ratios 15–45% higher.

doi: 10.1038/nature13721

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A major advance of tropical Andean glaciers during the Antarctic cold reversal p.224

A moraine chronology determined by surface exposure dating shows that glaciers in the northern tropical Andes expanded to a larger extent during the Antarctic cold reversal (14,500 to 12,900 years ago) than during the Younger Dryas stadial (12,800 to 11,500 years ago), contrary to previous studies; as a result, previous chronologies and climate interpretations from tropical glaciers may need to be revisited.

doi: 10.1038/nature13546

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A global strategy for road building p.229

A global zoning scheme is proposed to limit the environmental costs of road building while maximizing its benefits for human development, by discriminating among areas where road building would have high environmental costs but relatively low agricultural advantage, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural production with relatively modest environmental costs, and ‘conflict areas’ where road building may have large agricultural benefits but also high environmental costs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13717

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The evolution of the placenta drives a shift in sexual selection in livebearing fish p.233

In poeciliid fish, the evolution of the placenta is associated with polyandry in females and correlates with a suite of phenotypic and behavioural traits in males.

doi: 10.1038/nature13451

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免疫:ピリンインフラマソームは細菌によるRho GTPアーゼ修飾の自然免疫における認識を担う

Innate immune sensing of bacterial modifications of Rho GTPases by the Pyrin inflammasome p.237

The Pyrin inflammasome detects the presence of a pathogen not through recognition of a microbial molecule but by the activity of a bacterial toxin that modifies host Rho activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13449

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Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space p.242

The metagenome of uncultured, Pacific Ocean viruses linked to a ubiquitous cyanobacteria is characterized using viral-tagging, revealing discrete populations in viral sequence space that includes previously cultivated populations and new populations missed in isolate-based studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature13459

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Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development p.246

The continuing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations suppresses the development of stomatal pores, and thus gas exchange, in plant leaves on a global scale; now, a framework of mechanisms by which carbon dioxide represses development has been identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature13452

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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase opposes renal carcinoma progression p.251

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is shown to be depleted in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and inhibits ccRCC progression by antagonizing glycolytic flux in renal tubular epithelial cells and by restraining cell proliferation, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway in von Hippel–Lindau-protein-deficient ccRCC cells by blocking hypoxia-inducible factor function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13557

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Metastasis-suppressor transcript destabilization through TARBP2 binding of mRNA hairpins p.256

Linear sequence elements within messenger RNAs are known to be targeted by regulatory factors such as microRNAs for degradation, a process that has been implicated in disease; now, non-linear regulatory structural elements within mRNAs are shown also to be targeted, with the resulting mRNA destabilization mediating breast cancer metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13466

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Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser p.261

Femtosecond X-ray pulses were used to obtain diffraction data on photosystem II, revealing conformational changes as the complex transitions from the dark S1 state to the double-pumped S3 state; the time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography technique enables structural determination of protein conformations that are highly prone to traditional radiation damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature13453

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