Volume 557 Number 7705



A slow road for stem cells p.279

The steady and careful development that has guided treatments using embryonic stem cells should be applied to therapies derived from adult stem cells, too.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05160-7


Research institutions must put the health of labs first p.279

Universities should take responsibility to ensure professional science is performed in an environment that is supportive, productive and rigorous.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05159-0


Aluminium producers promise a cleaner smelting pot p.280

Industrial partnership and new anode technology could provide a greener way to make the metal — but cleaner electricity sources are also needed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05158-1



How science will suffer as US pulls out of Iran nuclear deal p.287

International research collaborations could end in wake of US president Donald Trump's decision.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05123-y


Sacked Japanese biologist gets chance to retrain at Crick institute p.288

Yoshinori Watanabe hopes to revive his career by attending a year-long retraining programme.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05139-4


Australian budget delivers for science facilities and medical research p.290

Scientists welcome relative windfall after years of stagnating funds.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05119-8


Europe is demolishing its dams to restore ecosystems p.290

The growing trend of dam removals calls for monitoring of environmental effects — both good and bad.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05182-1


Wikipedia’s top-cited scholarly articles — revealed p.291

Gene collections and astronomy studies dominate the list of the most-cited publications with DOIs on the popular online encyclopaedia.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05161-6

News Features


How to grow a healthy lab p.293


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05142-9


Some hard numbers on science’s leadership problems p.294


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05143-8

News & Views


Astronomy: Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang p.312


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05114-z


Computational neuroscience: AI mimics brain codes for navigation p.313


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04992-7


Oceanography: Will ocean zones with low oxygen levels expand or shrink? p.314


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05034-y


Cell reprogramming: More than one way to induce a neuron p.316


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04978-5


Atmospheric science: Evidence of illegal emissions of ozone-depleting chemicals p.317


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05110-3


Structural biology: Activation mechanisms for a universal signalling protein p.318


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04977-6



137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes p.369

Sequences of 137 ancient and 502 modern human genomes illuminate the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age and document the replacement of Indo-European speakers of West Eurasian ancestry by Turkic-speaking groups of East Asian ancestry.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0094-2


Diverse reprogramming codes for neuronal identity p.375

A screen in which combinatorial pairs of transcription factors are exogenously expressed in fibroblasts identifies different combinations that reprogram these cells into induced neuronal cells with diverse functional properties.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0103-5


Catalytic activation of β-arrestin by GPCRs p.381

Transient engagement of the G protein-coupled receptor core can act as a catalyst to activate cellular β-arrestin function after dissociation from the receptor.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0079-1


Reconstitution reveals motor activation for intraflagellar transport p.387

Reconstitution of a functional intraflagellar transport complex in Caenorhabditis elegans provides insight into the recruitment and activation of the kinesin-2 motor protein.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0105-3



The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang p.392

Observation of the emission line of doubly ionized oxygen at a redshift of 9.1096 reveals that star formation began at a redshift of about 15, around 250 million years after the Big Bang.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0117-z


The pressure distribution inside the proton p.396

Measurements of the quark pressure distribution in the proton reveal a strong repulsive pressure near the proton’s centre (stronger than the pressure in neutron stars) and a binding pressure at greater distances.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0060-z


Overcoming the rate–distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters p.400

Twin optical fields enable a form of quantum key distribution that can exceed the secret-key capacity without using quantum repeaters and that has security independent of the measuring devices.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0066-6


Dynamic band-structure tuning of graphene moiré superlattices with pressure p.404

For appropriately aligned layers of different two-dimensional materials, the separation between layers—and hence the interlayer coupling—is very sensitive to pressure, leading to pressure-induced changes in the electronic properties of the heterostructures.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0107-1


Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes p.409

Electrode films prepared from a liquid-crystal phase of vertically aligned two-dimensional titanium carbide show electrochemical energy storage that is nearly independent of film thickness.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0109-z


An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11 p.413

Atmospheric CFC-11 concentrations have been declining less rapidly since 2012; evidence suggests that this finding is explained by an increase in the emission of CFC-11during these years.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0106-2


Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period p.418

Phylogenies reconstructed using 12 hepatitis B virus genomes, which were recovered from ancient human genome data, reveal a complex history of hepatitis B evolution that is not evident when using only modern samples.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0097-z


Genome sequence of the progenitor of wheat A subgenome Triticum urartu OPEN p.424

The genome sequence of Triticum urartu, the progenitor of the A subgenome of hexaploid wheat, provides insight into genome duplication during grass evolution.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0108-0


Vector-based navigation using grid-like representations in artificial agents p.429

Grid-like representations emerge spontaneously within a neural network trained to self-localize, enabling the agent to take shortcuts to destinations using vector-based navigation.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0102-6


An exclusive metabolic niche enables strain engraftment in the gut microbiota p.434

Finely tuned control of strain engraftment and abundance in the mouse gut microbiota was achieved using the marine polysaccharide porphyran, which could exclusively be used by an introduced subset of wild-type or genetically modified Bacteroides strains.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0092-4


Control of cardiac jelly dynamics by NOTCH1 and NRG1 defines the building plan for trabeculation p.439

A new model of cardiac trabeculation in mice is presented in which NOTCH1 and NRG1 have opposing roles in extracellular matrix degradation and synthesis that are essential for defining trabecular architecture.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0110-6


Vms1 and ANKZF1 peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases release nascent chains from stalled ribosomes p.446

The Cdc48 adaptor Vms1 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase that cooperates with the ribosome quality control complex to catalyse the removal of nascent polypeptides from stalled ribosomes.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0022-5


Molecular mechanism of GPCR-mediated arrestin activation p.452

Molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy show that the transmembrane core and cytoplasmic tail of G-protein-coupled receptors independently and cooperatively activate arrestin.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0077-3

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