Volume 542 Number 7640



Academics must protest against Trump’s travel ban — but they should do so productively p.137

Boycotting US conferences will not help scientists from any country.

doi: 10.1038/542137a

英国で新設される公的助成機関UKリサーチ・イノベーションのトップに任命されたMark Walportに対し、批判の前にまずは機会を与えるべきだ。

The head of Britain’s powerful new funding body deserves a chance p.138

Mark Walport has the experience needed to take on the top job in UK science.

doi: 10.1038/542138a


The long reach of the monster plant p.138

Carnivorous plants have fascinated writers and botanists alike.

doi: 10.1038/542138b



Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe’s crops p.145

Researchers caution that stem rust may have returned to world’s largest wheat-producing region.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21424


LIGO’s underdog cousin ready to enhance gravitational-wave hunt p.146

It missed the historic discovery, but the Virgo lab in Italy is now primed to extend LIGO’s reach and precision.

doi: 10.1038/542146a


Treaty to stop biopiracy threatens to delay flu vaccines p.148

Industry and public-health experts concerned about ramifications of Nagoya Protocol.

doi: 10.1038/542148a


US child-health study rises from ashes of high-profile failure p.149

The government’s cancelled National Children’s Study has a successor that may sidestep earlier challenges.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21367


Show of shipwrecked treasures raises scientists’ ire p.150

Archaeologists worry that a museum exhibition will encourage exploitation of priceless historical sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21429


Physicists propose football-pitch-sized quantum computer p.151

Blueprint outlines ambitious scheme to solve uncrackable problems using existing technology.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21423

News Features


Arctic 2.0: What happens after all the ice goes? p.152


doi: 10.1038/542152a


Secrets of life in a spoonful of blood p.156


doi: 10.1038/542156a

News & Views


Regenerative medicine: Interspecies pancreas transplants p.168


doi: 10.1038/nature21490


Climate science: Ocean circulation drove increase in CO2 uptake p.169


doi: 10.1038/542169a


Palaeontology: Tiny fossils in the animal family tree p.170


doi: 10.1038/nature21493


Astroparticle physics: Dark matter remains elusive p.172


doi: 10.1038/542172a


Cognitive neuroscience: In search of lost time p.173


doi: 10.1038/nature21497


Cell biology: Organelle formation from scratch p.174

ペルオキシソームと呼ばれる細胞小器官は代謝を助け、欠陥のあるペルオキシソームの形成は、疾患の原因になることがある。今回、2つの異なるタイプの細胞小器官に由来する小胞が融合して、ペルオキシソームがde novoで形成され得ることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21496


Astronomy: Intermediate-mass black hole found p.175


doi: 10.1038/542175a



Inflammation, metaflammation and immunometabolic disorders p.177

doi: 10.1038/nature21363



Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height p.186

Data from over 700,000 individuals reveal the identity of 83 sequence variants that affect human height, implicating new candidate genes and pathways as being involved in growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature21039


Interspecies organogenesis generates autologous functional islets p.191

The authors inject mouse pluripotent stem cells into pancreatogenesis-disabled rat blastocysts and thereby generate rats with mouse pancreata from which the islets, when transplanted into mice, can provide a long-term cure for symptoms of diabetes, without continuous immunosuppression.

doi: 10.1038/nature21070


An Argonaute phosphorylation cycle promotes microRNA-mediated silencing p.197

The application of genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening coupled with a fluorescent reporter to interrogate the microRNA pathway reveals that continual transient phosphorylation of Argonaute 2 is required to maintain the global efficiency of microRNA-mediated repression.

doi: 10.1038/nature21025



An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae p.203

The properties of pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae suggest that an intermediate-mass black hole is hidden in the cluster’s gas-starved central cavity.

doi: 10.1038/nature21361


Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons p.206

Excitations to Rydberg states in a gas of ultracold atoms are used to produce a robust, nonlinear phase shift of exactly π/2 between two photons, which is protected against variations in experimental parameters by a symmetry of the system.

doi: 10.1038/nature20823


Weak synchronization and large-scale collective oscillation in dense bacterial suspensions p.210

Cells in dense bacterial suspensions can self-organize into highly robust collective oscillatory motion, while individual cells move in an erratic manner; their interaction is modelled to reveal a weak synchronization mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature20817


Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning p.215

Modelling of ocean carbon uptake for the 1980s to the 2000s shows that stronger upper-ocean overturning caused less carbon to be absorbed by the oceans in the 1990s, but that as the overturning circulation weakens more carbon is now being absorbed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21068


Vigorous lateral export of the meltwater outflow from beneath an Antarctic ice shelf p.219

The mechanism producing Antarctic meltwater at depth is elucidated and modelled.

doi: 10.1038/nature20825


Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination network resilience and function p.223

Removal of invasive exotic shrubs from mountaintop communities increased the number of pollinators and positively altered pollinator behaviour, which enhanced native fruit production, indicating that the degradation of ecosystem functions is partly reversible.

doi: 10.1038/nature21071


Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China) p.228

Saccorhytus coronarius are millimetric fossils from the early Cambrian period in China that are proposed to represent the most basal known deuterostomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21072


Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking p.232

Coordinated gamma oscillations in the lateral hypothalamus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex are shown to drive food-seeking behaviour in mice independently of nutritional need and to organize firing of feeding behaviour-related hypothalamic neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature21066


New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes p.237

Using a metagenomic approach, three types of CRISPR–Cas systems have been discovered in uncultivated bacterial and archaeal hosts from a variety of different environments.

doi: 10.1038/nature21059


Feedback control of AHR signalling regulates intestinal immunity p.242

Cytochrome P4501 enzymes have a role in the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand levels in the gut, affecting innate lymphoid and TH17 cell responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature21080


The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition p.246

Wild-type Drosophila epithelial cells outcompete proto-oncogenic cells through translocation of the ligand Sas to the wild-type–tumour cell interface, where it binds the PTP10D receptor of the tumour cell, initiating pro-apoptotic signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature21033


Newly born peroxisomes are a hybrid of mitochondrial and ER-derived pre-peroxisomes p.251

Peroxisomes—tiny intracellular organelles that contain metabolic enzymes—are generated in mammalian cells by the fusion of structures that arise from both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

doi: 10.1038/nature21375


Molecular mechanism for the regulation of yeast separase by securin p.255

The crystal structure of yeast separase in complex with its inhibitor securin sheds light on the mechanism of inhibition, in which securin inhibits separase by inserting a short segment into the active site.

doi: 10.1038/nature21061

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