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Editorials

米国は、患者数の少ない小児がんの臨床試験を奨励し、法的にも支援する必要がある。

More support for clinical trials in children p.465

US lawmakers should give drug firms the confidence to test paediatric cancer therapies.

doi: 10.1038/535465b

ヨーロッパは基礎科学の支援に力を注いでおり、世界各国や国際機関もこれにならうべきだ。

Agencies must show that basic research is worth the investment p.465

The European Research Council has begun to evaluate the impact of its grants; others should do the same.

doi: 10.1038/535465a

NatureおよびNature関連誌では、論文のインパクトを表す指標の多様化を図る。

Time to remodel the journal impact factor p.466

Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators.

doi: 10.1038/535466a

News

科学政策で見る、ドナルド・トランプvs.ヒラリー・クリントン。

Trump vs Clinton: worlds apart on science p.473

Presidential candidates begin to make clear their stark differences on climate change, energy production and stem-cell research.

doi: 10.1038/535473a

NASAが、どのような化学的痕跡が地球外生命体の証拠になるかを研究へ。

Planet hunters seek new ways to detect alien life p.474

Astrobiologists debate which chemical signatures would hint at life on other worlds.

doi: 10.1038/535474a

ブラジルの小頭症急増には、ジカウイルスだけでなく他の要因が関わっている可能性も。

Brazil asks whether Zika acts alone to cause birth defects p.475

Puzzling distribution of cases suggests Zika is not the only factor in reported microcephaly surge.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20309

中国が、既存治療抵抗性の非小細胞肺がん患者を対象としてCRISPR技術を使った初の臨床試験を。

Chinese scientists to pioneer first human CRISPR trial p.476

Gene-editing technique to treat lung cancer is due to be tested in people in August.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20302

欧州研究会議(ERC)が、資金提供してきた過去のプロジェクトについて、成果を評価するという試みを。

Europe’s premier funding agency measures its impact p.477

European Research Council embarks on an unusual evaluation that could inspire others.

doi: 10.1038/535477a

中国が、量子通信実験衛星の打ち上げを。

Chinese satellite is one giant step for the quantum internet p.478

Craft due to launch in August is first in a wave of planned quantum space experiments.

doi: 10.1038/535478a

News Features

気候:氷の歴史学者たち

How long-lost photographs reveal the future of Greenland’s ice p.480

グリーンランドの氷冠がすぐにも溶けてしまうのかを知りたいと、研究者たちは古い写真やスケッチに過去の変遷の手掛かりを探している。

doi: 10.1038/535480a

微生物学:ビールに夢中

Tapping genetics for better beer p.484

ベルギーのある研究室が、遺伝学を駆使して、完璧なビール酵母作りを目指している。

doi: 10.1038/535484a

News & Views

ヒトの知覚:アマゾンの音楽

Human perception: Amazon music p.496

西洋音楽からずっと隔離されてきた「チマネ族」の人々は、音楽に対する知覚が西洋音楽を聞き慣れた人々とは異なっていることが分かった。これは音楽に対する選好性が生得的なものか、それとも文化的なものかという疑問を生じさせる結果である。

doi: 10.1038/nature18913

気候科学:海洋モデルに対する予想外の解決

Climate science: Unexpected fix for ocean models p.497

海洋の熱を再配分する強い海流は、これまでのコンピューターモデルでは例外なく過小評価されてきた。だが今回、大気と海洋の結合によって海洋の渦が弱くなるとするモデルによってこの問題を解決できることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/535497a

遺伝学:進化と病気におけるミトコンドリアDNA

Genetics: Mitochondrial DNA in evolution and disease p.498

ミトコンドリアは独自のDNAを持っている。ミトコンドリアDNAの多様性が生理学的性質や寿命を変化させることが、今回マウスで明らかになった。これは進化生物学や病気の起源に関係してくる。

doi: 10.1038/nature18902

太陽系物理学:疑問が投げ掛けられるダイナモ理論

Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned p.500

恒星の磁場を駆動している機構を調べる手段であるX線放射観測が、今回4つの低温星について行われ、太陽と恒星における磁場生成に関して広く受け入れられているモデルに疑問を投げ掛ける結果が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/535500a

微生物学:鼻先よりも近い所にあった抗生物質

Microbiology: Antibiotics right under our nose p.501

我々の体に本来的に常在している細菌は、健康を支える多くの役割を担っている。今回、ヒトの鼻腔に常在している細菌が病原体に対して活性を示す抗生物質を産生していることが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/535501a

回顧:「無限の可能性を持つ細胞」の35年間

In retrospect: Thirty-five years of endless cell potential p.502

多能性幹細胞は体内のあらゆる種類の細胞に分化できる能力を備えている。マウス胚からのその単離と増殖は、ヒトの発生と病気の解明における極めて重要な進歩だった。

doi: 10.1038/535502a

Articles

神経科学:移動と報酬の際に、異なるドーパミン作動性軸索が速い信号を送る

Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward p.505

Fast phasic signals in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum occur during, and can induce, motor accelerations in mice, and these signals are transmitted by a largely distinct population of dopaminergic axons from those that signal reward.

doi: 10.1038/nature18942

微生物学:新規の抗生物質を産生して病原菌の定着を妨げるヒト共生細菌

Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization p.511

The nasal commensal bacterium Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces a novel cyclic peptide antibiotic, lugdunin, that inhibits colonization by S. aureus in animal models and is associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate in humans, suggesting that human commensal bacteria could be a valuable resource for the discovery of new antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature18634

構造生物学:Smoothenedで見られる自身の細胞外ドメインによる調節の構造基盤

Structural basis of Smoothened regulation by its extracellular domains p.517

Structural studies show that the activity of the G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened is modulated by ligand-regulated interactions between its extracellular and transmembrane domains.

doi: 10.1038/nature18934

Letters

宇宙物理学:微粒子の光電加熱フィードバックによる矮小銀河における星形成の抑制

Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback p.523

Simulations of dwarf galaxies that include photoelectric grain heating and supernovae indicate that the former is the dominant means by which these galaxies regulate their star formation rate, because the latter are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times.

doi: 10.1038/nature18292

宇宙物理学:タコクラインのない全対流状態にある恒星内の太陽型ダイナモのふるまい

Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline p.526

The relationship between the X-ray activity and rotation of a star is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the stellar dynamo; observations of four fully convective stars for which this relationship is similar to that of solar-type stars imply that the same dynamo mechanism is at work despite their structural differences to the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature18638

材料科学:テクスチャーを持つ力学的メタマテリアルのコンビナトリアル設計

Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials p.529

Lattices of cubic building blocks that deform anisotropically and that are designed to fit together like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle are 3D printed to create aperiodic, frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials; these metamaterials act as programmable shape-shifters and are able to perform pattern analysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18960

気候科学:海洋渦と大気の相互作用によって調節される西岸境界流

Western boundary currents regulated by interaction between ocean eddies and the atmosphere p.533

In coupled climate model simulations the strength of major oceanic fronts associated with western boundary currents—tremendous conveyors of ocean heat towards the poles—is systematically underestimated, but this can be addressed by resolving not only ocean mesoscale eddies but, more importantly, their feedback with the atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature18640

地震学:海洋アセノスフェア内の流動力学に対する高分解能の地震学的制約

High-resolution seismic constraints on flow dynamics in the oceanic asthenosphere p.538

Rayleigh waves recorded with an ocean-bottom seismograph array in the central Pacific Ocean constrain the seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere–asthenosphere system: seafloor-spreading-induced lithospheric fabric generates the strongest anisotropy, while density- and/or pressure-driven flow produces a secondary peak in anisotropy at the base of the asthenosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature18012

進化学:鰭の形成には外胚葉性頂堤への体節細胞の関与が不可欠である

A somitic contribution to the apical ectodermal ridge is essential for fin formation p.542

Invasion of a somite-derived cell population into the apical ectodermal ridge in zebrafish regulates apical fold induction during fin formation; ablation of these cells inhibits formation of the apical fold and increases the size of the underlying fin bud mesenchyme, suggesting that somite-derived cells play a key part in the evolutionary transition from fins to limbs.

doi: 10.1038/nature18953

知覚:アマゾン先住民の不協和音に対する中立な反応から明らかになる音楽知覚の文化的差異

Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception p.547

A native Amazonian society rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant, whereas Bolivian city- and town-dwellers preferred consonance, indicating that preference for consonance over dissonance is not universal and probably develops from exposure to particular types of polyphonic music.

doi: 10.1038/nature18635

神経科学:脳卒中後に起こるアストロサイトからニューロンへのミトコンドリア輸送

Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after stroke p.551

In a mouse model of ischaemia, mitochondrial particles released from astroctyes are taken up by adjacent neurons, leading to enhanced cell survival signalling; disruption of this release mechanism resulted in worsened neurological outcomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18928

免疫学:HIV-1抗体3BNC117はヒトで治療中断の間のウイルスリバウンドを抑制する

HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption p.556

A phase IIa clinical trial shows that the administration of the broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 delays viral rebound following the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in patients who were chronically infected with HIV-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature18929

遺伝学:ミトコンドリアDNAと核DNAのマッチングが代謝の形を決め、健康な老化をもたらす

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing p.561

Conplastic mice that share the same nuclear genome but have different mitochondrial DNA were analysed throughout their life — the mitochondrial genome affects many aspects of physiology and results in differences in median lifespan; the authors propose that the interplay of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be an important factor influencing this phenomenon.

doi: 10.1038/nature18618

分子生物学:XRCC4–XLFの可動性スリーブ構造はDNAを架橋し、切断されたDNAの断片を連結する

Sliding sleeves of XRCC4–XLF bridge DNA and connect fragments of broken DNA p.566

A combination of single-molecule techniques shows that the repair proteins XRCC4 and XLF form heteromeric mobile sleeve-like complexes that can bridge and hold together fragments of broken DNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature18643

分子生物学:翻訳複合体プロファイリングにより明らかにされたリボソームのスキャニングおよびリサイクルの動態

Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation complex profiling p.570

A translation complex sequencing approach has been developed enabling intermediates of all mRNA-associated processes of translation to be isolated and localized across the transcriptome; the results support longstanding models of initiation and termination and offer new mechanistic insights.

doi: 10.1038/nature18647

エピジェネティクス:マウスの不活性化されたX染色体の構造

Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse p.575

An in-depth analysis of the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse inactive X (Xi) chromosome provides insights into the regulation of Xi chromosome structure, its dependence on the macrosatellite DXZ4 region, the Xist non-coding RNA, as well as the basis for topologically associating domain (TAD) formation on the Xi.

doi: 10.1038/nature18589

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