More support for clinical trials in children p.465

US lawmakers should give drug firms the confidence to test paediatric cancer therapies.

doi: 10.1038/535465b

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Agencies must show that basic research is worth the investment p.465

The European Research Council has begun to evaluate the impact of its grants; others should do the same.

doi: 10.1038/535465a

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Time to remodel the journal impact factor p.466

Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators.

doi: 10.1038/535466a

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Trump vs Clinton: worlds apart on science p.473

Presidential candidates begin to make clear their stark differences on climate change, energy production and stem-cell research.

doi: 10.1038/535473a

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Planet hunters seek new ways to detect alien life p.474

Astrobiologists debate which chemical signatures would hint at life on other worlds.

doi: 10.1038/535474a

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Brazil asks whether Zika acts alone to cause birth defects p.475

Puzzling distribution of cases suggests Zika is not the only factor in reported microcephaly surge.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20309

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Chinese scientists to pioneer first human CRISPR trial p.476

Gene-editing technique to treat lung cancer is due to be tested in people in August.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20302

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Europe’s premier funding agency measures its impact p.477

European Research Council embarks on an unusual evaluation that could inspire others.

doi: 10.1038/535477a

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Chinese satellite is one giant step for the quantum internet p.478

Craft due to launch in August is first in a wave of planned quantum space experiments.

doi: 10.1038/535478a

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News Features


How long-lost photographs reveal the future of Greenland’s ice p.480


doi: 10.1038/535480a

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Tapping genetics for better beer p.484


doi: 10.1038/535484a

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News & Views


Human perception: Amazon music p.496


doi: 10.1038/nature18913

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Climate science: Unexpected fix for ocean models p.497


doi: 10.1038/535497a

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Genetics: Mitochondrial DNA in evolution and disease p.498


doi: 10.1038/nature18902

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Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned p.500


doi: 10.1038/535500a

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Microbiology: Antibiotics right under our nose p.501


doi: 10.1038/535501a

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In retrospect: Thirty-five years of endless cell potential p.502


doi: 10.1038/535502a

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Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward p.505

Fast phasic signals in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum occur during, and can induce, motor accelerations in mice, and these signals are transmitted by a largely distinct population of dopaminergic axons from those that signal reward.

doi: 10.1038/nature18942

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Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization p.511

The nasal commensal bacterium Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces a novel cyclic peptide antibiotic, lugdunin, that inhibits colonization by S. aureus in animal models and is associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate in humans, suggesting that human commensal bacteria could be a valuable resource for the discovery of new antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature18634

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Structural basis of Smoothened regulation by its extracellular domains p.517

Structural studies show that the activity of the G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened is modulated by ligand-regulated interactions between its extracellular and transmembrane domains.

doi: 10.1038/nature18934

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Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback p.523

Simulations of dwarf galaxies that include photoelectric grain heating and supernovae indicate that the former is the dominant means by which these galaxies regulate their star formation rate, because the latter are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times.

doi: 10.1038/nature18292

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Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline p.526

The relationship between the X-ray activity and rotation of a star is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the stellar dynamo; observations of four fully convective stars for which this relationship is similar to that of solar-type stars imply that the same dynamo mechanism is at work despite their structural differences to the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature18638

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Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials p.529

Lattices of cubic building blocks that deform anisotropically and that are designed to fit together like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle are 3D printed to create aperiodic, frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials; these metamaterials act as programmable shape-shifters and are able to perform pattern analysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18960

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Western boundary currents regulated by interaction between ocean eddies and the atmosphere p.533

In coupled climate model simulations the strength of major oceanic fronts associated with western boundary currents—tremendous conveyors of ocean heat towards the poles—is systematically underestimated, but this can be addressed by resolving not only ocean mesoscale eddies but, more importantly, their feedback with the atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature18640

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High-resolution seismic constraints on flow dynamics in the oceanic asthenosphere p.538

Rayleigh waves recorded with an ocean-bottom seismograph array in the central Pacific Ocean constrain the seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere–asthenosphere system: seafloor-spreading-induced lithospheric fabric generates the strongest anisotropy, while density- and/or pressure-driven flow produces a secondary peak in anisotropy at the base of the asthenosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature18012

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A somitic contribution to the apical ectodermal ridge is essential for fin formation p.542

Invasion of a somite-derived cell population into the apical ectodermal ridge in zebrafish regulates apical fold induction during fin formation; ablation of these cells inhibits formation of the apical fold and increases the size of the underlying fin bud mesenchyme, suggesting that somite-derived cells play a key part in the evolutionary transition from fins to limbs.

doi: 10.1038/nature18953

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Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception p.547

A native Amazonian society rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant, whereas Bolivian city- and town-dwellers preferred consonance, indicating that preference for consonance over dissonance is not universal and probably develops from exposure to particular types of polyphonic music.

doi: 10.1038/nature18635

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Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after stroke p.551

In a mouse model of ischaemia, mitochondrial particles released from astroctyes are taken up by adjacent neurons, leading to enhanced cell survival signalling; disruption of this release mechanism resulted in worsened neurological outcomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18928

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HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption p.556

A phase IIa clinical trial shows that the administration of the broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 delays viral rebound following the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in patients who were chronically infected with HIV-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature18929

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Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing p.561

Conplastic mice that share the same nuclear genome but have different mitochondrial DNA were analysed throughout their life — the mitochondrial genome affects many aspects of physiology and results in differences in median lifespan; the authors propose that the interplay of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be an important factor influencing this phenomenon.

doi: 10.1038/nature18618

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Sliding sleeves of XRCC4–XLF bridge DNA and connect fragments of broken DNA p.566

A combination of single-molecule techniques shows that the repair proteins XRCC4 and XLF form heteromeric mobile sleeve-like complexes that can bridge and hold together fragments of broken DNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature18643

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Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation complex profiling p.570

A translation complex sequencing approach has been developed enabling intermediates of all mRNA-associated processes of translation to be isolated and localized across the transcriptome; the results support longstanding models of initiation and termination and offer new mechanistic insights.

doi: 10.1038/nature18647

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Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse p.575

An in-depth analysis of the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse inactive X (Xi) chromosome provides insights into the regulation of Xi chromosome structure, its dependence on the macrosatellite DXZ4 region, the Xist non-coding RNA, as well as the basis for topologically associating domain (TAD) formation on the Xi.

doi: 10.1038/nature18589

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