Volume 535 Number 7612



Reward the forgotten foot soldiers of science p.323

The story of CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing has tended to focus on a few key players. But, as with any area of basic research, it takes a small army of talented researchers to make a discovery.

doi: 10.1038/535323a


Gotta name them all: how Pokémon can transform taxonomy p.323

Scientists are urging Pokémon Go fanatics to keep an eye out for new species.

doi: 10.1038/535323b


Time for physics to make its mark on cycling p.324

Basic bike design has been unchanged for a century — but science is finally finding out how to make bicycles better.

doi: 10.1038/535324a


EU離脱の決まった英国のTheresa May新政権の省庁再編では、科学にも影響が。

Science’s status shifts in new Brexit government p.331

Reshuffled UK administration signals change for research and science policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20264


First Greek science agency is rare source of joy for beleaguered researchers p.333

European Investment Bank provides surprise loan to halt startling brain drain.

doi: 10.1038/535333a


South China Sea ruling sparks conservation fears p.334

Court decision escalates tensions in ecologically sensitive region, but may also push nations to cooperate.

doi: 10.1038/535334a


Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic p.335

Genetics study confirms social cycle that helps infection to spread.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20273


Science under siege: how Venezuela’s economic crisis is affecting researchers p.336

Chemist Claudio Bifano tells Nature about daily life in a country gripped by hunger, scarcity and violence.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20261


Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet p.336

'Black and Bloom' project explores how microorganisms help to determine the pace of Arctic melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20265

News Features


The bicycle problem that nearly broke mathematics p.338

自転車を愛し自転車と共に過ごしてきた技術者Jim Papadopoulosの、自転車の走る仕組みに関する数学的研究が、今、注目を集めている。

doi: 10.1038/535338a


The unsung heroes of CRISPR p.342


doi: 10.1038/535342a

News & Views


Climate science: Cooling in the Antarctic p.358


doi: 10.1038/535358a


Molecular biology: A surprise beginning for RNA p.359


doi: 10.1038/nature18908


Conservation: Fishing for lessons on coral reefs p.361


doi: 10.1038/535361a


Condensed-matter physics: Attractive electrons from nanoengineering p.362


doi: 10.1038/535362a


Biogeochemistry: Nocturnal escape route for marsh gas p.363


doi: 10.1038/535363a


Physiology: Pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity revisited p.365


doi: 10.1038/nature18907



A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development p.367

A high-resolution gene expression atlas of prenatal and postnatal brain development of rhesus monkey charts global transcriptional dynamics in relation to brain maturation, while comparative analysis reveals human-specific gene trajectories; candidate risk genes associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders tend to be co-expressed in disease-specific patterns in the developing monkey neocortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature18637


Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity p.376

Increased potential for branched-chain amino acid and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the gut microbiome of insulin-resistant individuals suggests that changes in the serum metabolome induced by dysbiosis, and driven by only a handful of species, contribute to the development of diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18646


Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells p.382

Protection of nascent DNA from degradation provides a mechanism that can promote synthetic viability and drug resistance in Brca-deficient cells without restoring homologous recombination at double-strand breaks.

doi: 10.1038/nature18325



Relativistic reverberation in the accretion flow of a tidal disruption event p.388

Observations of reverberation arising from gravitationally redshifted iron Kα photons reflected off the inner accretion flow in a tidal disruption event demonstrate that X-rays originate from a region very close to the central black hole and not from a relativistic jet, as previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature18007


Origin and implications of non-radial Imbrium Sculpture on the Moon p.391

The widespread rimmed grooves, lineations and elongate craters extending from the Imbrium impact basin on the Moon, termed the Imbrium Sculpture, includes a non-radial component that is used to infer that the Imbrium impactor was the size of a proto-planet—about half the diameter of Vesta.

doi: 10.1038/nature18278


Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion p.395

Experimental demonstration of excitonic attraction between two electrons is achieved in quantum devices made from carbon nanotubes, where the interaction between two electrons is reversed from repulsive to attractive owing to their strong Coulomb interaction with another electronic system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18639


Engineering and mapping nanocavity emission via precision placement of DNA origami p.401

The incorporation of large numbers of chemically diverse functional components into microfabricated structures at precise locations is challenging; now the precision placement of DNA origami by directed self-assembly is shown to overcome this problem for the purpose of reliably and controllably coupling molecular emitters to photonic crystal cavities.

doi: 10.1038/nature18287


Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators p.406

A co-catalyst system for electrochemical alcohol oxidation composed of a bipyridine copper catalyst and an electron-proton-transfer mediator called TEMPO operates at much lower potential and is faster than TEMPO alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature18008


Absence of 21st century warming on Antarctic Peninsula consistent with natural variability p.411

Here it is shown that the late twentieth century warming trends in the Antarctic Peninsula have ceased, with the Peninsula having instead been cooling for most of the twenty-first century, underscoring the considerable internal variability within the Antarctic climate system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18645


Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs p.416

Data from over 2,500 reefs worldwide is used to identify 15 bright spots—sites where reef biomass is significantly higher than expected—and surveys of local experts in these areas suggest that strong sociocultural institutions and high levels of local engagement are among the factors supporting higher fish biomass.

doi: 10.1038/nature18607


Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour p.420

In the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies, defining tight temporal control of this behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature18630


Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour p.425

Adaptive immune dysfunction, in particular interferon-γ, is implicated in disorders characterized by social dysfunction and suggests interferon-γ signalling may provide a co-evolutionary link between social behaviour and an anti-pathogen immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature18626


Identification of proliferative and mature β-cells in the islets of Langerhans p.430

Mature pancreatic β-cells can be distinguished from proliferating ones by expression of the Fltp reporter gene, which is triggered by Wnt signalling and β-cell polarization and islet compaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature18624


Mobile genes in the human microbiome are structured from global to individual scales p.435

Mobile genes, which can be transferred between bacterial species in the microbiome to impart properties such as antibiotic resistance, are reflective of human activity and local diets.

doi: 10.1038/nature18927


Glial-cell-derived neuroregulators control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and gut defence p.440

Neurotrophic factors produced by enteric glia in response to microbiota and alarmin cues regulate IL-22 production by group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the gut; disruption of this pathway leads to impaired clearance of Citrobacter rodentium and defects in epithelial integrity in a model of intestinal inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18644


The mechanism of RNA 5′ capping with NAD+, NADH and desphospho-CoA p.444

RNA caps other than the 7-methylguanylate modification are generated by a distinct mechanism in which caps are added during, not after, transcription initiation through the use of non-canonical initiating nucleotides by RNA polymerases, a finding which has functional consequences.

doi: 10.1038/nature18622


Allosteric nanobodies reveal the dynamic range and diverse mechanisms of G-protein-coupled receptor activation p.448

Stabilization of an active and inactive conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor by allosteric nanobodies reveals differential ligand-dependent regulation of receptor states to control G-protein-coupled receptor activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18636

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