A breath of fresh air p.133

The decision to use the Montreal Protocol to reduce the impact of refrigerants on global warming is a step forward ahead of the Paris climate summit.

doi: 10.1038/527133a

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Universities’ value p.133

Proposals for UK higher education contain some positive points amid the financial gloom.

doi: 10.1038/527133b

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Radio interference p.134

Conflict at the Arecibo Observatory highlights the need for funders to become more flexible.

doi: 10.1038/527134a

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Keystone XL decision puts spotlight on US climate politics p.141

US President Barack Obama rejects pipeline to transport oil from Canada's tar sands to refineries along the Gulf of Mexico.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18751

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資金難で存続が危ぶまれているアレシボ天文台の運営責任者で、物理学者のRobert Kerrが辞任へ。

Arecibo Observatory director quits after funding row p.142

Departure of long-term advocate adds to woes of the financially troubled radio telescope.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18745

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Uncertainty for UK science ahead of giant spending review p.144

A flat budget is one of several possible outcomes that worry researchers.

doi: 10.1038/527144a

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Mega science prize split between 1,377 physicists p.145

Multimillion-dollar Breakthrough awards announce winners in physics, life sciences and mathematics.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18746

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Leukaemia success heralds wave of gene-editing therapies p.146

One-year-old girl treated as plans to inject DNA-cutting technology directly into patients' bodies take shape.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18737

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Canada creates science-minister post p.146

New prime minister Justin Trudeau gives research a higher profile.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18739

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News Features


Science and sexism: In the eye of the Twitterstorm p.148


doi: 10.1038/527148a

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New life for pig-to-human transplants p.152


doi: 10.1038/527152a

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News & Views


Molecular biology: DNA repair without flipping out p.168


doi: 10.1038/nature15646

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Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet p.169


doi: 10.1038/527169a

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Cancer: The enemy of my enemy is my friend p.170


doi: 10.1038/nature15644

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Earth science: Deadly combination p.172


doi: 10.1038/527172a

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Climate change: A rewired food web p.173


doi: 10.1038/nature16311

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Materials chemistry: Liquefied molecular holes p.174


doi: 10.1038/527174a

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Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era p.176


doi: 10.1038/527176a

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Economics: Higher costs of climate change p.177


doi: 10.1038/nature15643

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Basomedial amygdala mediates top-down control of anxiety and fear p.179

Activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex–basomedial amygdala pathway is shown to suppress anxiety and fear-related freezing in mice, thus identifying the basomedial amygdala (and not intercalated cells, as posited by earlier models) as a novel target of top-down control.

doi: 10.1038/nature15698

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Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells p.186

Human melanoma cells grown in mice experience high levels of oxidative stress in the bloodstream such that few metastasizing cells survive to form tumours; the rare melanoma cells that successfully metastasize undergo metabolic changes that increase their capacity to withstand this stress, and antioxidant treatments increase metastasis formation by human melanoma cells, while inhibiting antioxidant pathways had the reverse effect.

doi: 10.1038/nature15726

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分子生物学:Cas9を用いたin situでの飽和変異導入によるBCL11Aエンハンサーの分析

BCL11A enhancer dissection by Cas9-mediated in situ saturating mutagenesis p.192

A CRISPR-Cas9 approach is used to perform saturating mutagenesis of the human and mouse BCL11A enhancers, producing a map that reveals critical regions and specific vulnerabilities; BCL11A enhancer disruption is validated by CRISPR-Cas9 as a therapeutic strategy for inducing fetal haemoglobin by applying it in both mice and primary human erythroblast cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature15521

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Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Slo2.2 Na+-activated K+ channel p.198

The structure of the full-length Slo2.2 Na+-activated K+ channel is determined by cryo-electron microscopy, revealing features that explain the high conductance and gating mechanism of the Slo K+ channel family.

doi: 10.1038/nature14958

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A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star p.204

A low-mass star that is just 12 parsecs away from Earth is shown to be transited by an Earth-sized planet, GJ 1132b, which probably has a rock/iron composition and might support a substantial atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature15762

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Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange p.208

Spin-entangled states between two neutral atoms in different optical tweezers are prepared by combining them in the same optical tweezer and allowing for controlled interactions, after which the particles are dynamically separated in space and their entanglement is maintained.

doi: 10.1038/nature16073

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Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature p.212

The Hall effect is sometimes encountered in ferromagnetic materials in the absence of an external magnetic field; this so-called anomalous Hall effect is now reported in the antiferromagnetic material Mn3Sn, where it occurs as a consequence of the unusual and complex arrangement of the constituent magnetic moments.

doi: 10.1038/nature15723

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Liquids with permanent porosity p.216

Porous materials find use in applications such as gas separation, drug delivery and energy storage, but have hitherto been solid rather than liquid; now a combination of cage molecules and a crown-ether solvent that cannot enter the cage molecules is used to create a porous liquid that can solubilize methane gas better than non-porous liquids.

doi: 10.1038/nature16072

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Plate tectonics on the Earth triggered by plume-induced subduction initiation p.221

High-resolution three-dimensional thermomechanical simulations of Earth's lithosphere indicate that mantle plumes could have initiated the first subduction zones, but only in the hotter early Earth for old oceanic plates.

doi: 10.1038/nature15752

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Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers p.226

Detection of molecular biomarkers characteristic of beeswax in pottery vessels at archaeological sites reveals that humans have exploited bee products (such as beeswax and honey) at least 9,000 years ago since the beginnings of agriculture.

doi: 10.1038/nature15757

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Deep-time evolution of regeneration and preaxial polarity in tetrapod limb development p.231

Salamanders are the only tetrapod that can fully regenerate their limbs and tail, a capacity that might be linked to their unique preaxial mode of limb development; here, data from fossils reveal the existence of preaxial polarity in various amphibians from the Carboniferous and Permian periods, suggesting that salamander-like regeneration is an ancient feature of tetrapods that was subsequently lost at least once in the lineage leading to amniotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature15397

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Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production p.235

Economic productivity is shown to peak at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and decline at high temperatures, indicating that climate change is expected to lower global incomes more than 20% by 2100.

doi: 10.1038/nature15725

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Oxygen regulation of breathing through an olfactory receptor activated by lactate p.240

In addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 is involved in sensing hypoxia.

doi: 10.1038/nature15721

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Resensitizing daclatasvir-resistant hepatitis C variants by allosteric modulation of NS5A p.245

The drug daclatasvir (DCV), which inhibits the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A), can successfully reduce viral load in patients; here, a combination of DCV and an NS5A analogue is shown to enhance DCV potency on multiple genotypes and overcome resistance in vitro and in a mouse model.

doi: 10.1038/nature15711

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Epigenetic silencing of TH1-type chemokines shapes tumour immunity and immunotherapy p.249

Treating ovarian cancer in mouse models with inhibitors for the epigenetic regulators EZH2 and DNMT1 increases the expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, resulting in enhanced tumour infiltration by effector T cells, and slowed tumour progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature15520

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The DNA glycosylase AlkD uses a non-base-flipping mechanism to excise bulky lesions p.254

Crystal structures of the DNA glycosylase AlkD with DNA containing various modified bases show that neither substrate recognition nor catalysis use a base-flipping mechanism; instead, AlkD scans the phosphodeoxyribose backbone for increased cationic charge imparted by the alkylated base, and then uses the positive charge to facilitate cleavage of the glycosidic bond, thus explaining the specificity of AlkD for cationic lesions.

doi: 10.1038/nature15728

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Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex p.259

The X-ray crystal structure is presented of a seven-transmembrane eukaryotic SWEET glucose transporter, revealing the link between seven-transmembrane eukaryotic SWEETs and their three-transmembrane bacterial homologues and providing insight into eukaryotic sugar transport mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature15391

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