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Editorials

英国の大学は、研究不正行為にどう対処しているかを速やかに報告し、助成機関は効果的な対策を支援すべきだ。

Publish or perish p.259

Universities should release reports to show what they are doing to tackle misconduct — and funders should help them to do so effectively.

doi: 10.1038/521259a

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パテントトロールによる安易な訴訟を防ぐために法律を厳格化するのは有効な方法だが、万能薬でないことも知っておく必要がある。

A patent problem p.259

Making lawsuits more risky for patent trolls is just one way to stop abuse of the system.

doi: 10.1038/521259b

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人を殺人者に変えるのは何かという謎を解き明かすために、脳科学者と社会科学者とが一緒になって取り組むことは有益だ。

The kill switch p.260

Brain researchers and social scientists are well placed to find out what makes humans murder.

doi: 10.1038/521260a

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News

酵母の遺伝子操作による新たな鎮痛剤生産法は、有効だと思われるが、違法薬物に悪用される恐れも。

Engineered yeast paves way for home-brew heroin p.267

Advance holds potential for better opiate painkillers — but raises concerns about illicit use.

doi: 10.1038/251267a

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短期的な支援でも、極端な貧困の改善に長期的な効果があることが明らかに。

Aid burst lifts people out of extreme poverty p.269

Huge experiment across six nations shows lasting benefits from short-term support.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17560

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米国で、パテントトロールを規制するための特許法改正が前進を。

Congress seeks to quash patent trolls p.270

Revised legislation would spare universities from being penalized in the same way as unscrupulous companies.

doi: 10.1038/521270a

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英国の大学の多くが、研究不正行為の調査報告の指針に従っていないことが明らかに。

UK universities slow to publish reports of misconduct investigations p.271

Few institutions have followed research integrity guidelines to the letter.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17559

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米国原子力科学諮問委員会が、Electron–Ion Collider(EIC)計画を承認へ。

Billion-dollar particle collider gets thumbs up p.272

Proposed US electron–ion smasher wins endorsement from influential nuclear-science panel.

doi: 10.1038/521272a

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ロシア政府が、ダイナスティ財団に「外国代理人」のレッテルを。

Russia turns screw on science foundation p.273

Ministry of Justice threatens to label Dynasty Foundation a ‘foreign agent’.

doi: 10.1038/521273a

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News Features

再現性:抗体のせい

Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies p.274

抗体は生物学研究に大きく貢献する有用な物質だが、再現できない誤った発見を多く生み出す困りものでもある。

doi: 10.1038/521274a

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量子力学:何が本当に本当なのか?

Quantum physics: What is really real? p.278

量子の世界の奇妙さの根源を探る実験が盛んに行われている。

doi: 10.1038/521278a

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News & Views

考古学:道具の起源はさらに古い

Archaeology: Tools go back in time p.294

330万年前の、剥片や石刃を削り出した後の石核や槌、台石がケニアで見つかった。これは、最初の石器は、既知の最古のヒト属人類に先立って存在したヒト祖先によって作られたことを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/521294a

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量子物理学:2か所で同時に存在するスクイーズされたイオン

Quantum physics: Squeezed ions in two places at once p.295

トラップされたカルシウムイオンについての実験で、量子現象の奇妙な性質がまたもや明らかになった。これは、量子世界と古典的世界の間の境界を調べる感度の高い技術への道を開くかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/521295a

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幹細胞:非対称的な若返り

Stem cells: Asymmetric rejuvenation p.296

ミトコンドリアと呼ばれる細胞小器官は、その年齢に応じて、幹細胞が分裂して生じる細胞に非対称に配分される。この知見は幹細胞の非対称的分裂の基盤となる機序の解明を助けるものとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/521296a

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材料科学:掟破りの磁性合金

Materials science: Magnetic alloys break the rules p.298

磁化した際に予想外の変形を起こす合金群が見つかった。この珍しい挙動は、磁気ヒステリシスと呼ばれる現象が持つ謎の解明を助けるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/521298a

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幹細胞:平衡状態の確立

Stem cells: Equilibrium established p.299

多能性細胞は体内のあらゆる種類の細胞を作り出すことができる。このような多能性状態はWntシグナル伝達の阻害などの合図によって付与され、多様な細胞の生成に関する平衡状態を維持していることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/521299a

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分子生物学:段階的スプライシングのツーステップ機構

Molecular biology: Splicing does the two-step p.300

遺伝子から特に長いイントロン(非コード配列)を切除するために行われる、RNAの複雑な段階的スプライシングの機構は進化的に保存されていて、従来考えられていたよりもずっと広範囲にわたって存在することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14524

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Review

X線結晶学:相関不規則系の結晶構造解析

The crystallography of correlated disorder p.303

Although classical crystallography is insufficient to determine disordered structure in crystals, correlated disorder does nevertheless contain clear crystallographic signatures that map to the type of disorder, which we are learning to decipher.

doi: 10.1038/nature14453

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Articles

考古学:ケニア・西トゥルカナのロメクウィ3遺跡から出土した330万年前の石器

3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya p.310

Tool making has been considered to be an attribute of the genus Homo; this paper reports 3.3-million-year-old stone tools and the early timing of these tools provides evidence that the making and use of stone tools by hominins occurred before the evolution of our own genus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14464

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幹細胞:新たな多能性状態は異種間キメラ形成能に寄与する

An alternative pluripotent state confers interspecies chimaeric competency p.316

A previously unknown type of stem cell that can engraft in specific regions of the mouse epiblast is described; these region-selective pluripotent stem cells display notable intra- and inter-specific chimaera competency and will help to further our understanding of mammalian development.

doi: 10.1038/nature14413

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神経科学:ドーパミン輸送体による神経伝達物質と精神刺激薬の認識

Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter p.322

Here the X-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila dopamine transporter bound to dopamine, D-amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine are solved; these structures show how a neurotransmitter, small molecule stimulants and cocaine bind to a biogenic amine transporter, and are examples of how the ligand binding site of a neurotransmitter transporter can remodel itself to accommodate structurally unrelated small molecules that are different in shape, size and polarity or charge.

doi: 10.1038/nature14431

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Letters

天文学:生まれたてのIa型超新星からの強い紫外線パルス

A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova p.328

Observations of declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of the explosion are as expected if material ejected by the supernova collided with a companion star, supporting the single degenerate channel model of supernova progenitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14440

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天文学:3つのIa型超新星に伴星と噴出物との相互作用を示す痕跡はなかった

No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae p.332

The explosion of a type Ia supernova could be triggered either by accretion from a companion—which should be indicated by brightening caused by interaction of supernova ejecta with the companion—or by a merger with a white dwarf or other small star; here observations by the Kepler mission of three type Ia supernovae reveal no such brightening, leading to the conclusion that they were triggered by a merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature14455

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量子力学:スクイーズド振動子波束によるスピン–運動の量子もつれと状態診断

Spin–motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets p.336

A single atom is used to create squeezed ‘Schrödinger’s cat’ states, which could be useful for quantum computation and interferometry.

doi: 10.1038/nature14458

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材料科学:非ジュール磁気ひずみ

Non-Joulian magnetostriction p.340

Typical ferromagnets elongate and contract anisotropically when placed in a magnetic field but conserve the overall volume, an effect known as Joule magnetostriction; here, a new effect is observed in Fe–Ga alloys—large non-volume-conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction—which has not previously been observed in any magnet.

doi: 10.1038/nature14459

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進化遺伝学:ノイズに対する選択が真核生物のプロモーターの多様性を制限する

Selection on noise constrains variation in a eukaryotic promoter p.344

Quantifying activity of cis-regulatory sequences controlling gene expression shows that selection on expression noise has a greater impact on sequence variation than selection on mean expression level.

doi: 10.1038/nature14244

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神経科学:聴覚弁別課題の学習獲得時に見られる皮質線条体シナプスの選択的可塑性

Selective corticostriatal plasticity during acquisition of an auditory discrimination task p.348

During an auditory discrimination task in rats, synaptic inputs representing either high or low sound frequencies from the cortex to the striatum are specifically strengthened, depending on reward contingencies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14225

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幹細胞:予測的単離とマスサイトメトリーで明らかになった再プログラム化の初期調節因子

Early reprogramming regulators identified by prospective isolation and mass cytometry p.352

Identification of transient early induced pluripotency reprogramming intermediates allows for mechanistic insight into the reprogramming process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14274

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がん:急性リンパ芽球性白血病でのシグナル伝達の閾値と負のB細胞選択

Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p.357

This study shows that, despite malignant transformation, autoimmune checkpoints are still functional in B-cell leukaemia, with targeted activation of these checkpoints effectively killing patient-derived B-cell leukaemia in a transplant model; the results represent a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance in leukaemia patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature14231

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エボラウイルス:脂質ナノ粒子に封入されたsiRNAによるマコナエボラウイルスを感染させた非ヒト霊長類に対する治療

Lipid nanoparticle siRNA treatment of Ebola-virus-Makona-infected nonhuman primates p.362

Ebola-virus-targeting short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles are adapted to the current outbreak strain of the virus, and the siRNA cocktail is shown to protect nonhuman primates fully when administered 3 days after challenge with the current West African Ebola virus isolate; upon viral sequence data availability, the drug can be adapted to the new virus and produced in as little as 8 weeks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14442

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幹細胞:パイオニア因子は幹細胞の可塑性と細胞系譜選択においてスーパーエンハンサーの動態を統御する

Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice p.366

An analysis of mouse skin reveals that super-enhancers are critical to identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult stem cells; dynamic super-enhancer remodelling in new niches is dependent on the levels of pioneer transcription factor SOX9, which is identified as a key regulator of super-enhancer chromatin for hair follicle stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14289

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分子生物学:脊椎動物の長い遺伝子での段階的スプライシング

Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes p.371

Highly conserved recursive splice sites are identified in vertebrates, particularly within long genes encoding proteins that are involved in neuronal development; analysis of the splicing mechanism reveals that such recursive splicing sites can be used to dictate different mRNA isoforms.

doi: 10.1038/nature14466

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分子生物学:ショウジョウバエでのゼロサイズ段階的スプライシングのゲノム全体にわたる検証

Genome-wide identification of zero nucleotide recursive splicing in Drosophila p.376

In flies, some introns contain internal splice sites that cause ‘recursive splicing’, a multi-step removal of a single intron; this study demonstrates that the scope of this regulatory mechanism is much more extensive in flies than had been appreciated, and provides details about the recursive splicing process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14475

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