Volume 521 Number 7552



Publish or perish p.259

Universities should release reports to show what they are doing to tackle misconduct — and funders should help them to do so effectively.

doi: 10.1038/521259a


A patent problem p.259

Making lawsuits more risky for patent trolls is just one way to stop abuse of the system.

doi: 10.1038/521259b


The kill switch p.260

Brain researchers and social scientists are well placed to find out what makes humans murder.

doi: 10.1038/521260a



Engineered yeast paves way for home-brew heroin p.267

Advance holds potential for better opiate painkillers — but raises concerns about illicit use.

doi: 10.1038/251267a


Aid burst lifts people out of extreme poverty p.269

Huge experiment across six nations shows lasting benefits from short-term support.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17560


Congress seeks to quash patent trolls p.270

Revised legislation would spare universities from being penalized in the same way as unscrupulous companies.

doi: 10.1038/521270a


UK universities slow to publish reports of misconduct investigations p.271

Few institutions have followed research integrity guidelines to the letter.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17559

米国原子力科学諮問委員会が、Electron–Ion Collider(EIC)計画を承認へ。

Billion-dollar particle collider gets thumbs up p.272

Proposed US electron–ion smasher wins endorsement from influential nuclear-science panel.

doi: 10.1038/521272a


Russia turns screw on science foundation p.273

Ministry of Justice threatens to label Dynasty Foundation a ‘foreign agent’.

doi: 10.1038/521273a

News Features


Reproducibility crisis: Blame it on the antibodies p.274


doi: 10.1038/521274a


Quantum physics: What is really real? p.278


doi: 10.1038/521278a

News & Views


Archaeology: Tools go back in time p.294


doi: 10.1038/521294a


Quantum physics: Squeezed ions in two places at once p.295


doi: 10.1038/521295a


Stem cells: Asymmetric rejuvenation p.296


doi: 10.1038/521296a


Materials science: Magnetic alloys break the rules p.298


doi: 10.1038/521298a


Stem cells: Equilibrium established p.299


doi: 10.1038/521299a


Molecular biology: Splicing does the two-step p.300


doi: 10.1038/nature14524



The crystallography of correlated disorder p.303

Although classical crystallography is insufficient to determine disordered structure in crystals, correlated disorder does nevertheless contain clear crystallographic signatures that map to the type of disorder, which we are learning to decipher.

doi: 10.1038/nature14453



3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya p.310

Tool making has been considered to be an attribute of the genus Homo; this paper reports 3.3-million-year-old stone tools and the early timing of these tools provides evidence that the making and use of stone tools by hominins occurred before the evolution of our own genus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14464


An alternative pluripotent state confers interspecies chimaeric competency p.316

A previously unknown type of stem cell that can engraft in specific regions of the mouse epiblast is described; these region-selective pluripotent stem cells display notable intra- and inter-specific chimaera competency and will help to further our understanding of mammalian development.

doi: 10.1038/nature14413


Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter p.322

Here the X-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila dopamine transporter bound to dopamine, D-amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine are solved; these structures show how a neurotransmitter, small molecule stimulants and cocaine bind to a biogenic amine transporter, and are examples of how the ligand binding site of a neurotransmitter transporter can remodel itself to accommodate structurally unrelated small molecules that are different in shape, size and polarity or charge.

doi: 10.1038/nature14431



A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova p.328

Observations of declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of the explosion are as expected if material ejected by the supernova collided with a companion star, supporting the single degenerate channel model of supernova progenitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14440


No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae p.332

The explosion of a type Ia supernova could be triggered either by accretion from a companion—which should be indicated by brightening caused by interaction of supernova ejecta with the companion—or by a merger with a white dwarf or other small star; here observations by the Kepler mission of three type Ia supernovae reveal no such brightening, leading to the conclusion that they were triggered by a merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature14455


Spin–motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets p.336

A single atom is used to create squeezed ‘Schrödinger’s cat’ states, which could be useful for quantum computation and interferometry.

doi: 10.1038/nature14458


Non-Joulian magnetostriction p.340

Typical ferromagnets elongate and contract anisotropically when placed in a magnetic field but conserve the overall volume, an effect known as Joule magnetostriction; here, a new effect is observed in Fe–Ga alloys—large non-volume-conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction—which has not previously been observed in any magnet.

doi: 10.1038/nature14459


Selection on noise constrains variation in a eukaryotic promoter p.344

Quantifying activity of cis-regulatory sequences controlling gene expression shows that selection on expression noise has a greater impact on sequence variation than selection on mean expression level.

doi: 10.1038/nature14244


Selective corticostriatal plasticity during acquisition of an auditory discrimination task p.348

During an auditory discrimination task in rats, synaptic inputs representing either high or low sound frequencies from the cortex to the striatum are specifically strengthened, depending on reward contingencies.

doi: 10.1038/nature14225


Early reprogramming regulators identified by prospective isolation and mass cytometry p.352

Identification of transient early induced pluripotency reprogramming intermediates allows for mechanistic insight into the reprogramming process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14274


Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p.357

This study shows that, despite malignant transformation, autoimmune checkpoints are still functional in B-cell leukaemia, with targeted activation of these checkpoints effectively killing patient-derived B-cell leukaemia in a transplant model; the results represent a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance in leukaemia patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature14231


Lipid nanoparticle siRNA treatment of Ebola-virus-Makona-infected nonhuman primates p.362

Ebola-virus-targeting short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles are adapted to the current outbreak strain of the virus, and the siRNA cocktail is shown to protect nonhuman primates fully when administered 3 days after challenge with the current West African Ebola virus isolate; upon viral sequence data availability, the drug can be adapted to the new virus and produced in as little as 8 weeks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14442


Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice p.366

An analysis of mouse skin reveals that super-enhancers are critical to identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult stem cells; dynamic super-enhancer remodelling in new niches is dependent on the levels of pioneer transcription factor SOX9, which is identified as a key regulator of super-enhancer chromatin for hair follicle stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14289


Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes p.371

Highly conserved recursive splice sites are identified in vertebrates, particularly within long genes encoding proteins that are involved in neuronal development; analysis of the splicing mechanism reveals that such recursive splicing sites can be used to dictate different mRNA isoforms.

doi: 10.1038/nature14466


Genome-wide identification of zero nucleotide recursive splicing in Drosophila p.376

In flies, some introns contain internal splice sites that cause ‘recursive splicing’, a multi-step removal of a single intron; this study demonstrates that the scope of this regulatory mechanism is much more extensive in flies than had been appreciated, and provides details about the recursive splicing process.

doi: 10.1038/nature14475

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