目次

Editorials

量子技術の商業化を目指すヨーロッパの計画には、明確な目標が必要だ。

Market forces p.145

A European plan to commercialize quantum technologies needs a bold goal.

doi: 10.1038/533145b

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授乳婦の服薬に関する研究は簡単ではないが、そのリスクと恩恵について詳しい情報が得られれば価値は高い。

Mothers’ milk p.145

The safe use of medicines during breastfeeding is not an easy topic to study, but new parents deserve better information on the risks and benefits.

doi: 10.1038/533145a

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電子タバコの功罪には議論があるが、科学界は力を合わせて規制問題に取り組むべきだ。

Smoke out p.146

Scientists should unite over electronic-cigarette regulation, or big tobacco will step in.

doi: 10.1038/533146a

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News

安価で使い勝手の良いバーチャルリアリティー(VR)装置が登場し、魅力的な研究ツールに。

Low-cost headsets boost virtual reality’s lab appeal p.153

A wave of user-friendly devices is making the technology an attractive research tool.

doi: 10.1038/533153a

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学校教育の修業年限に関係する遺伝的多様性についての報告をめぐって、激しい議論が。

Gene variants linked to success at school prove divisive p.154

Huge study uncovers 74 genetic markers that influence the number of years spent in education.

doi: 10.1038/533154a

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エジプトで発見された3000年以上前のミイラに、宗教的意味を持つと思われる多数の入れ墨が。

Intricate animal and flower tattoos found on Egyptian mummy p.155

Scholars excited by depiction of actual objects on the body of a 3,000-year-old woman.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19864

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安全保障の観点から、マウスの骨髄破壊的処置に用いる放射性セシウム装置の使用を止めようという動きに、米国の生物学界が困惑を。

Biologists struggle with push to eliminate radioactive caesium in labs p.156

Scientists fear that security-driven switch to X-ray irradiators will harm their research.

doi: 10.1038/533156a

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フランスの科学大臣Thierry Mandonが考える今後の研究改革とは。

France’s research minister lays out his priorities p.157

Thierry Mandon on cutting red tape, French researchers’ self-effacement and shaking up social science.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19868

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イタリアの15億ユーロ規模の新しい生物医学センター計画をめぐる論争が、ますます激化を。

Row over proposed Italian biomedical centre intensifies p.158

Document submitted to the Italian Senate criticizes institute that will oversee a €1.5-billion project.

doi: 10.1038/533158a

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News Features

発生学:性別のジレンマ

The spectrum of sex development: Eric Vilain and the intersex controversy p.160

米国カリフォルニア大学ロサンゼルス校のEric Vilainが長年取り組んでいる性分化疾患(DSD)研究には、疾患の性質と同様、一刀両断できない問題が常につきまとう。

doi: 10.1038/533160a

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計算科学:サイバー犯罪の人間的な側面

How to hack the hackers: The human side of cybercrime p.164

ますます巧妙になるサイバー攻撃を技術面だけで防ぐのはもはや不可能で、加害者と被害者の両方を理解するために行動科学と経済学を役立てる必要がある。

doi: 10.1038/533164a

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News & Views

人体発生学:着床に対する障壁を乗り越える

Human embryology: Implantation barrier overcome p.182

ヒトの発生の初期段階は普通ならば子宮内で進行するために観察しにくい。だが、胚を胚盤胞段階から培養する技術の進歩によって、このような段階をより容易に調べられる可能性がでてきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature17894

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有機化学:分子を正確に刈り込む

Organic chemistry: Precision pruning of molecules p.183

有機分子を樹木のようなものだと考えれば、その中の数多くの炭素–水素結合は葉っぱに当たるだろう。たくさんある同じような「葉」の中から1枚を選んで標的とする触媒は、合成化学を大きく飛躍させると思われる。

doi: 10.1038/533183a

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大気科学:流れ星が捉えた古代の大気

Atmospheric science: Ancient air caught by shooting stars p.184

古代の隕石が燃え尽きた後の灰が27億年前の湖床から回収された。それ以外の全ての証拠が大気に酸素が含まれなかったことを示しているにもかかわらず、この試料はその時代の上層大気が酸素に富んでいたことを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/533184a

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量子物性物理学:衝突経路上の準粒子

Quantum-matter physics: Quasiparticles on a collision course p.186

運動量と電荷からなる新規量子は準粒子と呼ばれていて、物質の性質の多くを支配している。今回、準粒子衝突型加速器が開発された。この装置によって、このような特異な実体についての基本的な知見が明らかになると期待される。

doi: 10.1038/533186a

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天体力学:四体問題の新たな解

Celestial mechanics: Fresh solutions to the four-body problem p.187

重力の影響下にある3つ以上の数の天体の動きを記述することは、天文学における最大の難問の1つである。四体問題の大きな一群に対する解が報告されたことは、誠に注目すべき成果である。

doi: 10.1038/nature17896

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神経生物学:性のための配線

Neurobiology: Wired for sex p.188

線虫の一種であるCaenorhabditis elegansの感覚神経回路の解析から、その回路の配線は性特異的であって、こうした回路は元来は雌雄両性で共通して形成されていた神経結合が性特異的に刈り込まれて生じることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17898

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Review

気候科学:モンスーン降雨の強制と応答に対する古気候の手掛かり

Palaeoclimatic insights into forcing and response of monsoon rainfall p.191

Palaeoclimatic evidence of monsoon rainfall dynamics across different regions and timescales suggests that monsoon systems exhibit substantial regional variation; meridional temperature gradients are a major driver of monsoon variability, but these gradients are influenced by other, interacting forcing mechanisms, making predictions of future changes in monsoon rainfall highly uncertain.

doi: 10.1038/nature17450

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Articles

ゲノム進化:タイセイヨウサケのゲノムから得られる再複相化の手掛かり

The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization OPEN p.200

The genome sequence is presented for the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), providing information about a rediploidization following a salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication event that resulted in an autotetraploidization.

doi: 10.1038/nature17164

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神経科学:線虫Caenorhabditis elegansにおけるニューロンシナプスの性特異的な剪定

Sex-specific pruning of neuronal synapses in Caenorhabditis elegans p.206

How sex-specific neuronal circuits are generated during development is poorly understood; here, sensory neurons are identified in the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which initially connect in both male- and hermaphrodite-specific patterns, but a specific subset of these connections is pruned by each sex upon sexual maturation to produce sex-specific connectivity patterns and dimorphic behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature17977

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微生物生態学:低所得者居住地の相互につながったマイクロバイオームとレジストーム

Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats p.212

An analysis of bacterial community structure and antibiotic resistance gene content of interconnected human faecal and environmental samples from two low-income communities in Latin America was carried out using a combination of functional metagenomics, 16S sequencing and shotgun sequencing; resistomes across habitats are generally structured along ecological gradients, but key resistance genes can cross these boundaries, and the authors assessed the usefulness of excreta management protocols in the prevention of resistance gene dissemination.

doi: 10.1038/nature17672

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Letters

宇宙物理学:恒星黒点の非対称性から見いだされた活動的なアンドロメダ座ζ星の太陽型でないダイナモ

No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry p.217

Sunspots are cool areas caused by strong surface magnetic fields that inhibit convection. Moreover, strong magnetic fields can alter the average atmospheric structure, degrading our ability to measure stellar masses and ages. Stars that are more active than the Sun have more and stronger dark spots than does the Sun, including on the rotational pole. Doppler imaging, which has so far produced the most detailed images of surface structures on other stars, cannot always distinguish the hemisphere in which the starspots are located, especially in the equatorial region and if the data quality is not optimal. This leads to problems in investigating the north–south distribution of starspot active latitudes (those latitudes with more starspot activity); this distribution is a crucial constraint of dynamo theory. Polar spots, whose existence is inferred from Doppler tomography, could plausibly be observational artefacts. Here we report imaging of the old, magnetically active star ζ Andromedae using long-baseline infrared interferometry. In our data, a dark polar spot is seen in each of two observation epochs, whereas lower-latitude spot structures in both hemispheres do not persist between observations, revealing global starspot asymmetries. The north–south symmetry of active latitudes observed on the Sun is absent on ζ And, which hosts global spot patterns that cannot be produced by solar-type dynamos.

doi: 10.1038/nature17444

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惑星科学:太陽近傍にある非常に冷たい矮星をトランジットする温暖な地球型惑星

Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star p.221

Three Earth-sized planets—receiving similar irradiation to Venus and Earth, and ideally suited for atmospheric study—have been found transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star that has a mass of only eight per cent of that of the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature17448

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量子物理学:サブサイクルの時間スケールでの光波に駆動される準粒子衝突

Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale p.225

A quasiparticle collider is developed that uses femtosecond optical pulses to create electron–hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide, and a strong terahertz field to accelerate and collide the electrons with the holes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17958

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有機化学:活性化されていないC–H結合の部位選択的かつ立体選択的な官能基化

Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of unactivated C–H bonds p.230

The idea of carbon–hydrogen functionalization, in which C–H bonds are modified at will, represents a paradigm shift in the standard logic of organic synthesis; here, dirhodium catalysts are used to achieve highly site-selective, diastereoselective and enantioselective C–H functionalization of n-alkanes and terminally substituted n-alkyl compounds.

doi: 10.1038/nature17651

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大気科学:酸素の豊富な始生代の上層大気を示唆する古代の微小隕石

Ancient micrometeorites suggestive of an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere p.235

Evidence in support of low atmospheric oxygen concentrations on early Earth relates to the composition of the lower Archaean atmosphere; now the composition of fossil micrometeorites preserved in 2.7-billion-year-old rocks in Australia suggests that they were oxidized in an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature17678

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地球ダイナミクス:テクトニクスと深部マントル流の相互作用によるホットスポットの突発的な速い動き

A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow p.239

Models of thermochemical convection reveal flow patterns in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific since 100 million years ago that explain how the enigmatic bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track arose.

doi: 10.1038/nature17422

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生物地理学:北米で初めて見つかった化石サル類と前期中新世の熱帯域における生物交換

First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange p.243

Here, 21-million-year-old fossils of a New World monkey from Panama are described, constituting the earliest known evidence for mammalian interchange between North and South America.

doi: 10.1038/nature17415

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神経科学:ある四肢麻痺患者における機能的運動の皮質による制御の回復

Restoring cortical control of functional movement in a human with quadriplegia p.247

Signals recorded from motor cortex—through an intracortical implant—can be linked in real-time to activation of forearm muscles to restore movement in a paralysed human.

doi: 10.1038/nature17435

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人体発生学:in vitro接着ヒト胚の自己組織化

Self-organization of the in vitro attached human embryo p.251

An in vitro model to study the early events that direct human embryo development after formation of the blastocyst and implantation in the uterine wall.

doi: 10.1038/nature17948

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微生物学:腸内微生物相における協力の進化

The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota p.255

Little is known about cooperative behaviour among the gut microbiota; here, limited cooperation is demonstrated for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, but Bacteroides ovatus is found to extracellularly digest a polysaccharide not for its own use, but to cooperatively feed other species such as Bacteroides vulgatus from which it receives return benefits.

doi: 10.1038/nature17626

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細胞生物学:有糸分裂の際のリン酸化によるAPC/C活性化の分子機構

Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation p.260

Phosphorylation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) allows for its control by the co-activator Cdc20; a mechanism that has relevance to understanding the control of other large multimeric complexes by phosphorylation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17973

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構造生物学:アデノシンA2A Gタンパク質共役受容体のコンホメーション選択による活性化

Activation of the A2A adenosine G-protein-coupled receptor by conformational selection p.265

The adenosine A2A receptor, a class A G-protein-coupled receptor, exists as an ensemble of two inactive and two active states in equilibrium and is activated by conformational selection rather than induced fit.

doi: 10.1038/nature17668

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構造生物学:ミトコンドリアのカルシウム単輸送体の構造

Architecture of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter p.269

The structure of the core region of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is determined by NMR and electron microscopy, revealing that MCU is a homo-pentamer with a specific transmembrane helix forming a hydrophilic pore across the membrane, and representing one of the largest membrane protein structures characterized by NMR spectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature17656

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構造生物学:グルカゴン受容体アンタゴニストのヘリックスからなる特別な結合部位

Extra-helical binding site of a glucagon receptor antagonist p.274

The X-ray crystal structure of the transmembrane portion of the human glucagon receptor, a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is solved in the presence of the antagonist MK-0893, with potential implications for the development of therapeutics that target other class B GPCRs.

doi: 10.1038/nature17414

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