Volume 556 Number 7702


Challenge anti-Semitism p.407

A wave of anti-Jewish prejudice is once again washing over schools and universities. There is no excuse not to call out this vile behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04926-3

Climate talks are not enough p.407

As officials meet in Bonn to swap stories on progress towards the Paris goals, only emissions cuts will guarantee a happy ending.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04925-4

The science photos worth seeing p.408

Results from a Nature photo competition show the power of images.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04924-5


Clear signs of global warming will hit poorer countries first p.415

New climate-inequality tool quantifies how quickly the weather will veer beyond normal in different regions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04854-2

Scientists’ early grant success fuels further funding p.416

Young researchers who narrowly miss out on postdoctoral grant struggle to compete with those who just qualify.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04958-9

US government considers charging for popular Earth-observing data p.417

Images from Landsat satellites and agricultural-survey programme are freely available to scientists — but for how long?

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04874-y

Rent increase hits Europe’s drug regulator before Brexit move p.418

With a move from London to Amsterdam less than a year away, the European Medicines Agency is facing uncertainty.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04917-4

Mars probe poised to solve red planet’s methane mystery p.419

Researchers hope European–Russian Trace Gas Orbiter will end a long-running debate over source of the gas on Mars.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04948-x

Flu virus finally sequenced in its native form p.420

Direct sequencing of RNA molecules such as virus genomes should help to unpick role of mysterious chemical modifications.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04908-5

News Features

Can the world kick its fossil-fuel addiction fast enough? p.422

Clean energy is growing quickly. But time is running out to rein in carbon emissions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04931-6

Is ‘friendly fire’ in the brain provoking Alzheimer’s disease? p.426

Scientists want to combat dementia and neurodegeneration by keeping the brain’s immune system from going rogue.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04930-7

News & Views

Organic chemistry: Classic reaction re-engineered through molecular face recognition p.438

A catalyst has been developed that recognizes the topology of just one face of a planar reaction intermediate. Remarkably, this enables one mirror-image isomer of the reaction product to be made selectively.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04684-2

Epidemiology: A broader look at adolescents with perinatal HIV p.439

An epidemiological study of adolescents who had acquired HIV around the time of birth highlights how high-income countries benefit from the ability to begin treating all infected children in the first years of life.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04476-8

Ocean science: Shrimp cause a stir p.440

Migration of brine shrimp causes substantial mixing of the water column.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04673-5

Biotechnology: Organoids reveal cancer dynamics p.441

Single-cell analyses in cancer are limited by the small biomass of individual cells. In vitro production of 3D organoid structures from single tumour-derived cells generates sufficient biomass for in-depth analyses.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03841-x

Tumour biology: Transition states that allow cancer to spread p.442

Cancers of epithelial-cell origin often contain some tumour cells that have acquired traits of mesenchymal cells. How this leads to cancer spread has now been illuminated in mouse models.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04403-x

Quantum physics: Entangled vibrations in mechanical oscillators p.444

Two experiments have demonstrated entanglement — non-classical correlations — between remote mechanical systems comprising billions of atoms. The results could advance our understanding of quantum physics.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04827-5

Neuroscience: Hunger is a gatekeeper of pain in the brain p.445

A neuronal population has now been found that regulates two competing needs — hunger and pain. Urgent pain overrides hunger, but appetite-inducing neuronal activity dampens long-term pain responses to enable feeding.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04759-0


Quaternary stereocentres via an enantioconvergent catalytic SN1 reaction p.447

Cooperation between a chiral hydrogen-bond-donor catalyst and a strong Lewis-acid promoter in an SN1-type reaction mediates the formation of tertiary carbocations and enables control over enantioselectivity and product distribution.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0042-1

Renewing Felsenstein’s phylogenetic bootstrap in the era of big data p.452

A new version of the phylogenetic bootstrap method enables assessment of the robustness of phylogenies that are based on large datasets of hundreds or thousands of taxa.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0043-0

Intra-tumour diversification in colorectal cancer at the single-cell level p.457

Organoids derived from individual cells from colorectal cancers and adjacent normal tissue are used to investigate intra-tumour diversification at the genomic, epigenetic and functional levels.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0024-3

Identification of the tumour transition states occurring during EMT p.463

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumour cells occurs through distinct intermediate states, associated with different metastatic potential, cellular properties, gene expression, and chromatin landscape

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0040-3


A massive core for a cluster of galaxies at a redshift of 4.3 p.469

Observations of carbon monoxide and ionized carbon lines from the source SPT2349-56 show it to contain a cluster of at least fourteen gas-rich galaxies with redshifts of 4.31, in a highly dense core region.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0025-2

Remote quantum entanglement between two micromechanical oscillators p.473

Remote quantum entanglement is demonstrated in a micromachined solid-state system comprising two optomechanical oscillators across two chips physically separated by 20 cm and with an optical separation of around 70 m.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0036-z

Stabilized entanglement of massive mechanical oscillators p.478

Quantum entanglement is demonstrated in a system of massive micromechanical oscillators coupled to a microwave-frequency electromagnetic cavity by driving the devices into a steady state that is entangled.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0038-x

Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator p.483

Ohmic losses in plasmonic devices can be reduced by exploiting ‘resonant switching’, in which light couples to surface plasmon polaritons only when in resonance and bypasses them otherwise.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0031-4

Earthquake-induced transformation of the lower crust p.487

During continent collision and associated mountain building, a surprisingly large volume of the lower crust is shown to be affected by earthquake aftershocks, producing a top-down effect on crustal geodynamics.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0045-y

Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages p.492

Acute heat stress from the extended marine heatwave of 2016 is a potent driver of the transformation of coral assemblages, which affects even the most remote and well-protected reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0041-2

Vertically migrating swimmers generate aggregation-scale eddies in a stratified column p.497

Laboratory experiments with the brine shrimp Artemia salina illustrate the potential for turbulence generated by the diurnal vertical migrations of aggregations of centimetre-scale zooplankton to affect the physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic water columns.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0044-z

Electrophilic properties of itaconate and derivatives regulate the IκBζ–ATF3 inflammatory axis p.501

The immunoregulatory metabolite itaconate and its dimethyl derivative induce electrophilic stress and react with glutathione to induce both Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent responses, resulting in AF3-mediated inhibition of the inflammation-related protein IκBζ.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0052-z

Genetic identification of leptin neural circuits in energy and glucose homeostases p.505

A subset of neurons in the hypothalamus is identified as the primary site of action for regulating energy balance and glucose homeostasis by leptin.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0049-7

Pluripotency factors functionally premark cell-type-restricted enhancers in ES cells p.510

Binding of an ES cell-specific transcription factor pre-marks cell-type-restricted enhancers in ES cells, and this premarking is required for the robustness of enhancer activation in differentiated cells.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0048-8

Mechanism of NMDA receptor channel block by MK-801 and memantine p.515

A high-resolution X-ray structure and molecular dynamics simulations of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in complexes with channel-blocking ligands reveals the molecular basis of the ligand binding and channel block.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0039-9

Structural basis of ligand binding modes at the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor p.520

Crystal structures of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor in complex with two distinct antagonists combined with NMR, molecular docking and mutagenesis studies inform a proposed model for receptor–agonist binding.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0046-x

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