Volume 557 Number 7703



The ethics of catching criminals using their family’s DNA p.5

A high-profile arrest in California shows how the long arm of the law can now extend into DNA databases to check for relatives.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05029-9


Real-world illness requires medical multitasking p.5

To improve health care, researchers need to study diseases as they occur: in combination.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05028-w


Nature journals formalize ethical standards for human embryo and stem-cell research p.6

Specialist reviewers will be asked to assess if regulations have been followed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05030-2



Mars quakes set to reveal tantalizing clues to planet’s early years p.13

NASA’s Mars InSight spacecraft will listen for seismic activity to understand the planet’s core.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04964-x


Giving at-risk children pre-emptive antibiotics reduces deaths p.14

Clinical trial in Africa helps kids, but raises fears about drug resistance.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04962-z


Physicists in Earth’s remotest corners race to reproduce ‘cosmic dawn’ signal p.15

Teams rush to capture radiation from Universe’s first stars and to explain puzzling observations.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04966-9

ヒトの全ゲノム合成を目指していた「Genome Project–write」計画は、より実現性の高いウイルス耐性細胞系列作製へと目標を変更。

Scientists downsize bold plan to make human genome from scratch p.16

With funding still scarce, GP-write project shifts focus to making virus-resistant human cells.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05043-x


Brazil’s lawmakers renew push to weaken environmental rules p.17

Legislation includes proposals to open up the Amazon rainforest to agriculture.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05022-2


Billion-star map of Milky Way set to transform astronomy p.18

European Gaia spacecraft’s first major data dump — the most detailed 3D chart yet of our Galaxy — will keep researchers busy for decades.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04979-4

News Features


After the violence p.19


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04976-7

News & Views


Molecular biology: Faulty replication can sting p.34


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02804-6


Astronomy: Helium discovered in the tail of an exoplanet p.35


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04969-6


Palaeontology: Evolutionary insights from an ancient bird p.36

イクチオルニス(Ichthyornis dispar)は、鳥類が祖先である恐竜の特徴を捨て、現在の特徴を進化させた時期の重要な絶滅鳥類である。今回、イクチオルニスの頭蓋の復元から、この変遷の様子が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04780-3


Supramolecular chemistry: Protein and gel combined to make hyperexpandable crystals p.38


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04956-x


Nanotechnology: Molecular machines swap rings p.39


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02732-5


Medical research: Life of a liver awaiting transplantation p.40


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04458-w



Genomic variation in 3,010 diverse accessions of Asian cultivated rice OPEN p.43

Analyses of genetic variation and population structure based on over 3,000 cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) genomes reveal subpopulations that correlate with geographic location and patterns of introgression consistent with multiple rice domestication events.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0063-9


A randomized trial of normothermic preservation in liver transplantation p.50

Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver improved early graft function, demonstrated by reduced peak serum aspartate transaminase levels and early allograft dysfunction rates, and improved organ utilization and preservation times, although no differences were seen in graft or patient survival.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0047-9


SAMHD1 acts at stalled replication forks to prevent interferon induction p.57

SAMHD1 has an essential role in the replication stress response and prevents inflammation by activating the MRE11 nuclease to degrade nascent DNA strands at stalled replication forks, thus enabling replication.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0050-1


Cryo-EM structure of the gasdermin A3 membrane pore p.62

High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the membrane-pore-forming domain of the mouse gasdermin GSDMA3 show that it forms pores with 26-, 27- or 28-fold symmetry and indicate that it may also form a parallel, soluble, pre-pore ring structure.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0058-6



Helium in the eroding atmosphere of an exoplanet p.68

A detection of helium absorption at 10,833 Å on the exoplanet WASP-107b reveals that its atmosphere is extended and eroding, and demonstrates a new way to study upper exoplanetary atmospheres.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0067-5


Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen OPEN p.71

The shape of the spectral line and the resonance frequency of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen agree very well with those of hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0017-2


Lightwave valleytronics in a monolayer of tungsten diselenide p.76

A strong lightwave in a monolayer of tungsten diselenide drives changes in the valley pseudospin, making valley pseudospin an information carrier that is switchable faster than a single light cycle.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0013-6


An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics p.81

An optical-frequency synthesizer based on stabilized frequency combs has been developed utilizing chip-scale devices as key components, in a move towards using integrated photonics technology for ultrafast science and metrology.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0065-7


Hyperexpandable, self-healing macromolecular rystals with integrated polymer networks p.86

The integration of macromolecular ferritin protein crystals with hydrogel polymers gives a composite material that expands isotropically and reversibly to twice its size while maintaining periodicity, resists fragmentation and self-heals efficiently.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0057-7


Synthesis, structure and reaction chemistry of a nucleophilic aluminyl anion p.92

An aluminium compound is synthesized in which the aluminium is formally anionic; reactions with various substrates suggest that this compound acts as the nucleophilic partner in both metal–carbon and metal–metal bond-forming reactions.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0037-y


Complete Ichthyornis skull illuminates mosaic assembly of the avian head p.96

High-resolution computed tomography of three-dimensionally preserved specimens of Ichthyornis dispar clarifies the mosaic evolution of the avian head, revealing a kinetic feeding apparatus reminiscent of modern birds, a transitional beak and a dinosaurian temporal region.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0053-y


Deep mitochondrial origin outside the sampled lphaproteobacteria p.101

Genome data for thirteen alphaproteobacteria-related clades expand the coverage of alphaproteobacterial diversity and suggest that mitochondria diverged from Alphaproteobacteria before the diversification of all currently known alphaproteobacterial lineages.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0059-5


Blastocyst-like structures generated solely from stem cells p.106

Trophoblast and embryonic stem cells interact in vitro to form structures that resemble early blastocysts, and the embryo provides signals that drive early trophectoderm development and implantation.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0051-0


LUBAC is essential for embryogenesis by preventing cell death and enabling haematopoiesis p.112

The HOIL-1 component of the LUBAC ubiquitin ligase complex is required for LUBAC activity, which prevents lethality during embryogenesis by preventing aberrant TNFR1-mediated endothelial cell death and RIPK1-mediated defects in haematopoiesis.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0064-8


Architecture of an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase initiation complex p.118

A cryo-EM structure of an initiation complex of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sheds light on the initiation of reverse transcription of viral RNA.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0055-9


Structure of the alternative complex III in a supercomplex with cytochrome oxidase p.123

The structure of alternative complex III, a key enzyme in the bacterial electron transport chain, is reported both alone and as a supercomplex with an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0061-y

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