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Editorials

科学研究とその出版過程における透明性は大きく改善されており、Nature Researchもこれに関してさまざまな取り組みを行っている。

Steps towards transparency in research publishing p.431

As research and editorial processes become increasingly open, scientists and editors need to be proactive but also alert to risks.

doi: 10.1038/549431a

カタルーニャの独立を問う住民投票を控えているが、その結果がどうあれ科学界にも影響が及ぶであろう。

Scientists see opportunity and risks in Catalan independence p.432

The upcoming referendum is unsettling researchers.

doi: 10.1038/549432b

世界の植物園は、絶滅の危機にある植物の保護のために、協力すべきだ。

World’s botanic gardens should work together p.432

A study suggests a possible way to save more species.

doi: 10.1038/549432a

News

米国では、相次ぐハリケーンの被害の中で、研究者たちが今後に備えデータ収集を。

Hurricanes Harvey and Irma send scientists scrambling for data p.439

Even before getting their own lives settled, teams collect information on storm behaviour and their effects on the ecosystem.

doi: 10.1038/549439a

高エネルギーの宇宙線の起源が銀河系外であることを確実に示す初めての証拠が。

High-energy cosmic rays come from outside our Galaxy p.440

Giant observatory announces long-awaited result.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22655

ドイツのメルケル首相が四選を果たしたが、エネルギー政策などをめぐって激しい議論になる可能性が。

What Germany’s election results mean for science p.441

A new coalition could face battles over gene editing and climate regulations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22667

メキシコで連続して起こった2つの大地震には関連はないとの見解が。

Deadly Mexico quakes not linked p.442

Despite close timing, researchers doubt that the first big tremor set off the second.

doi: 10.1038/549442a

南極のラーセンC棚氷の分離で、氷の下に隠れていた生態系の解明に期待が。

Giant iceberg’s split exposes hidden ecosystem p.443

Biologists rush to study creatures living beneath Larsen C ice shelf before they disappear.

doi: 10.1038/549443a

雌をめぐる競争が、カモのペニスの大きさに劇的な影響を。

Sexual competition among ducks wreaks havoc on penis size p.443

When forced to compete for mates, some birds develop longer penises and others almost nothing at all.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22648

News Features

化学:きらめく新薬を探す手引き

The drug-maker's guide to the galaxy p.445

広大な化合物の「宇宙」を探査してその中から優れた医薬品を見つけるのに、機械学習とビッグデータが役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/549445a

材料科学:最前線を生きる

Living on the edge p.448

ケンブリッジ大学(英国)の物性物理学者Gilbert Lonzarich氏は、材料科学の限界を押し広げ、物質の量子状態の研究に革命をもたらした。

doi: 10.1038/549448a

News & Views

がん:腫瘍の周辺を攻めて神経膠腫をたたく

Cancer: Drain the swamp to beat glioma p.460

がん細胞を標的にして脳腫瘍を治療する試みは、臨床的にほとんど成功していない。今回、腫瘍に隣接したニューロンから分泌されるタンパク質の標的化が有効な代替法となる可能性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24141

地球化学:蒸発する微惑星

Geochemistry: Evaporating planetesimals p.461

今回2つの研究によって、地球などの太陽系の岩石惑星の形成時に溶岩の蒸発が生じていたことが示された。これは、激しい衝突が惑星の形成過程に重要な役割を担っていたことを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/549461a

白血病:ビタミンCが幹細胞とがんを調節する

Leukaemia: Vitamin C regulates stem cells and cancer p.462

造血幹細胞における高濃度のビタミンCが、腫瘍抑制タンパク質Tet2への結合を介して、幹細胞の数と機能、そして白血病の発生に影響を及ぼすことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23548

物性物理学:スピン流を制御する

Condensed-matter physics: Taking control of spin currents p.464

広く受け入れられている見解では、電子の磁気モーメントと運動量は、重元素でできた物質においてしか強く結合しないとされている。今回、特筆すべき反例が実験的に示された。

doi: 10.1038/549464a

がん:悪い血が腫瘍の進行を促進する

Cancer: Bad blood promotes tumour progression p.465

血液前駆細胞の亜集団を異常に拡大させる変異は、白血病を引き起こすことが知られている。今回、遺伝学的解析によって、こうした血液幹細胞のクローン性変異が、固形腫瘍を持つ人々にもよく見られることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/549465a

神経科学:母親の細菌と関連する子の行動

Neuroscience: Mum's bacteria linked to baby's behaviour p.466

妊娠時の感染は、自閉症などの子の神経発達障害のリスクを増大させる。今回、マウスの研究によって、腸内細菌と非定型な脳回路接続との関連が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24139

Articles

神経科学:内側嗅内皮質における軸索シナプスソーティング

Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex p.469

Path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting of local presynaptic axons of excitatory neurons in the rat medial entorhinal cortex results in sequential targeting of inhibitory and excitatory neurons, which are connected by a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit.

doi: 10.1038/nature24005

幹細胞:アスコルビン酸は造血幹細胞の機能と白血病発生を調節する

Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis p.476

Ascorbate depletion in mice increased haematopoietic stem-cell frequency and promoted leukaemogenesis, partly by reducing the function of the Tet2 tumour suppressor enzyme.

doi: 10.1038/nature23876

免疫学:母体の炎症に曝露されたマウスの行動異常を回復させる

Reversing behavioural abnormalities in mice exposed to maternal inflammation p.482

The authors define a specific cortical subregion of the somatosensory cortex as a critical region of dysfunction that is causal to the emergence of abnormal social and repetitive behaviours in mice exposed to maternal inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature23909

Letters

天文学:降着を受けている大質量ブラックホールの近傍の環境は輻射フィードバックによって形成される

The close environments of accreting massive black holes are shaped by radiative feedback p.488

Radiation pressure on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material that obscures many supermassive black holes.

doi: 10.1038/nature23906

物性物理学:運動エネルギーとの結合によって生じる反転対称性の破れによる最大のラシュバ型スピン分裂

Maximal Rashba-like spin splitting via kinetic-energy-coupled inversion-symmetry breaking p.492

Asymmetry in surface hopping energies in different atomic layers of delafossite oxides results in some of the largest known Rashba-like spin splittings.

doi: 10.1038/nature23898

材料科学:合成エラストマーを用いて生体材料の応力–ひずみ挙動を模倣する

Mimicking biological stress–strain behaviour with synthetic elastomers p.497

A polymer code based on a triplet of parameters—network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density—enables materials to be designed with specific combinations of mechanical properties to mimic biological materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature23673

化学:天然物生合成におけるSAM依存性酵素によって触媒されるペリ環状反応

SAM-dependent enzyme-catalysed pericyclic reactions in natural product biosynthesis p.502

The enzyme LepI is found to be capable of catalysing several natural-product pericyclic transformations, including a hetero-Diels–Alder reaction and a retro-Claisen rearrangement.

doi: 10.1038/nature23882

惑星科学:溶融と蒸発によって確立された地球の揮発性物質含有量

Earth’s volatile contents established by melting and vaporization p.507

The pattern of volatile element depletion in the silicate Earth suggests that melting and vaporization on precursor bodies and during accretion were responsible for the volatile element contents of Earth.

doi: 10.1038/nature23645

惑星科学:集積時の蒸気の損失によって惑星の組成が生じたことを示すマグネシウム同位体組成

Magnesium isotope evidence that accretional vapour loss shapes planetary compositions p.511

The measurement of magnesium isotope ratios at improved accuracy suggests that planetary compositions result from fractionation between liquid and vapour, followed by vapour escape during accretionary growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature23899

進化学:カナダ・ラブラドルの39億5000万年前の堆積岩から発見された初期の生命の痕跡

Early trace of life from 3.95 Ga sedimentary rocks in Labrador, Canada p.516

The authors provide evidence for the existence of life on Earth in the earliest known sedimentary rocks and suggest that the presence of organic carbon, and low stable-isotope values of graphite from sedimentary rocks in Labrador pushes back the existence of organic life to beyond 3.95 billion years.

doi: 10.1038/nature24019

遺伝学:アイスランド人の両親と子の1548トリオで見られた、ヒト生殖系列de novo変異に及ぼす親の影響

Parental influence on human germline de novo mutations in 1,548 trios from Iceland p.519

Whole-genome sequencing data of 14,688 Icelanders, including 1,548 parent–offspring trios, show how the age and sex of parents affect the rate and spectrum of de novo mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature24018

神経科学:ApoE4はタウオパチーのモデルマウスにおいてタウを介した神経変性を著しく増悪させる

ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy p.523

ApoE4 exacerbates tau pathogenesis, neuroinflammation and tau-mediated neurodegeneration independently of brain amyloid-β pathology, and exerts a ‘toxic’ gain of function whereas its absence is protective.

doi: 10.1038/nature24016

免疫学:母体の腸内細菌は仔マウスに神経発達障害を促進する

Maternal gut bacteria promote neurodevelopmental abnormalities in mouse offspring p.528

Maternal immune activation (MIA)-mediated abnormal behavioural phenotypes require defined gut commensal bacteria for the induction of IL-17-producing T helper 17 cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23910

がん:高悪性度神経膠腫で神経活動調節性ニューロリギン3依存性を標的にする

Targeting neuronal activity-regulated neuroligin-3 dependency in high-grade glioma p.533

The growth of adult and paediatric brain tumours depends on a microenvironmental signalling pathway involving the activity-regulated secretion of neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) from normal neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, highlighting the potential of NLGN3 as a therapeutic target.

doi: 10.1038/nature24014

プロテオミクス解析:幹細胞の比較グリコプロテオミクスからリシン毒性に関与する新しい因子が明らかになる

Comparative glycoproteomics of stem cells identifies new players in ricin toxicity p.538

A novel quantitative approach to identify intact glycopeptides from comparative proteomic data sets, allowing inference of complex glycan structures and direct mapping of them to sites within the associated proteins at the proteome scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature24015

がん遺伝学:胚体外系列細胞のエピジェネティックな制限は、体細胞のがんへの移行と非常によく似ている

Epigenetic restriction of extraembryonic lineages mirrors the somatic transition to cancer p.543

In mammals, the canonical somatic DNA methylation landscape is established upon specification of the embryo proper and subsequently disrupted within many cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms that direct this genome-scale transformation remain elusive, with no clear model for its systematic acquisition or potential developmental utility. Here, we analysed global remethylation from the mouse preimplantation embryo into the early epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm. We show that these two states acquire highly divergent genomic distributions with substantial disruption of bimodal, CpG density-dependent methylation in the placental progenitor. The extraembryonic epigenome includes specific de novo methylation at hundreds of embryonically protected CpG island promoters, particularly those that are associated with key developmental regulators and are orthologously methylated across most human cancer types. Our data suggest that the evolutionary innovation of extraembryonic tissues may have required co-option of DNA methylation-based suppression as an alternative to regulation by Polycomb-group proteins, which coordinate embryonic germ-layer formation in response to extraembryonic cues. Moreover, we establish that this decision is made deterministically, downstream of promiscuously used—and frequently oncogenic—signalling pathways, via a novel combination of epigenetic cofactors. Methylation of developmental gene promoters during tumorigenesis may therefore reflect the misappropriation of an innate trajectory and the spontaneous reacquisition of a latent, developmentally encoded epigenetic landscape.

doi: 10.1038/nature23891

分子生物学:S期とG2期でのDNA修復経路選択はNHEJ阻害因子CYRENにより調節される

Regulation of DNA repair pathway choice in S and G2 phases by the NHEJ inhibitor CYREN p.548

CYREN is a direct inhibitor of classical non-homologous end joining that promotes error-free repair by homologous recombination during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature24023

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