目次

Editorials

学術誌における男女不均衡の問題の改善にはまだまだ時間がかかりそうだ。

Gender imbalance in science journals is still pervasive p.435

The latest update on Nature’s sexism shows an increase in female contributors and referees since 2012, but there is a long way to go.

doi: 10.1038/541435b

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これまでの常識が通じない米国のトランプ新大統領に対し、科学者たちは一歩も引かず立ち向かうべきだ。

Scientists must fight for the facts p.435

President Trump’s unconventional stances cannot go unchallenged.

doi: 10.1038/541435a

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さまざまな国、団体、製薬企業が参加し、新興感染症のワクチン備蓄を目指すCEPI(Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations)は、称賛に値する。

Vaccine initiative marks bold resolution p.436

Preparation against future epidemic threats is a welcome and essential move.

doi: 10.1038/541436a

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News

トランプ新大統領の「米国第一」主義と化石燃料への回帰に、強い懸念が。

Trump’s next move? Scientists struggle with foggy future p.443

The US president reiterated his promise to roll back climate regulations on his first day in office.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21339

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ダボス会議で、突然の感染症大流行に備えた大規模なワクチン開発・備蓄を目指すCEPIが発足。

Billion-dollar project aims to prep vaccines before epidemics hit p.444

Massive effort plans to stockpile vaccines against future outbreaks.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21329

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植物生物学の分野で、観察目的でのロボットの開発が続々と。

Plant biologists welcome their robot overlords p.445

Old-school areas of plant biology are getting tech upgrades that herald more detailed, faster data collection.

doi: 10.1038/541445a

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学術誌は、査読者に対し、査読の秘密保持に関する要項を明確に示すべきとの意見が。

‘You never said my peer review was confidential’ — scientist challenges publisher p.446

Open-science advocate says journals should be clearer to peer-reviewers about terms and conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21342

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再現性が疑われているCRISPR代替技術のNgAgoに、デンマークのバイオ企業が資金を。

Biotech firm backs controversial CRISPR challenger p.447

What Novozymes might do with the NgAgo protein, claimed by some to be a powerful gene editor, is still unclear.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21343

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D-Wave社が販売する量子コンピューターの量子ビット数が、大幅に向上。

D-Wave upgrade: How scientists are using the world’s most controversial quantum computer p.447

Scepticism surrounds the ultimate potential of D-wave machines, but researchers are already finding uses for them.

doi: 10.1038/541447b

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米国のコモン・ルール(ヒト被験者保護のための倫理指針)の改訂案に関し、議論が。

Controversial patient-consent proposal left out of research-ethics reforms p.449

US agency releases finalized ‘Common Rule’, which governs human-subjects research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21330

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News Features

巨大プロジェクト:夢を込めたバズワード

Big science has a buzzword problem p.450

科学分野の大規模プロジェクトでは、「ムーンショット」「ロードマップ」「イニシアチブ」「フレームワーク」などの言葉が散見されるが、これらの言葉の意味はどういうものなのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/541450a

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News & Views

ウイルス学:ファージの集団意思決定

Virology: Phages make a group decision p.466

細菌に感染するウイルスであるファージの一部が、低分子ペプチドを用いて互いに情報を伝達し合っていることが今回分かった。こうした細胞間コミュニケーションの観察結果は、このウイルスが発生上の重要な意思決定をする仕組みも明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/nature21118

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物理学:反水素の光学遷移

Physics: Optical transition seen in antihydrogen p.467

反物質系の高精度測定によって、この宇宙が物質で占められている理由に光が当たる可能性がある。今回行われた反水素原子の遷移の観測は、来たるべき高精度反物質研究の先駆けとなる。

doi: 10.1038/541467a

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惑星科学:地球の構成要素

Planetary science: Earth's building blocks p.468

地球は、隕石物質が集積して成長した。今回高精度同位体データによって、隕石物質が時間とともにどのように変化したかが明らかになり、地球形成モデルの見直しが必要になった。

doi: 10.1038/541468a

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材料科学:チップ上でゲルを集合させる汎用的な方法

Materials science: Versatile gel assembly on a chip p.470

ヒドロゲルと呼ばれる材料は、組織工学用の足場として応用できる可能性があるが、ヒドロゲルを集合させて、自然界に見られるものによく似た複雑な構造体を作る方法が必要である。まさにそうした方法が今回報告されている。

doi: 10.1038/nature21491

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細胞生物学:がんにおける非典型的な翻訳

Cell biology: Unconventional translation in cancer p.471

RNAを翻訳してタンパク質を合成するのは、あらゆる細胞における基本的な過程である。皮膚がんのマウスモデルの解析によって、腫瘍形成に極めて重要な役割がある非典型的なRNA翻訳プログラムが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21115

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Review

Articles

神経科学:活性化ミクログリアはニューロンを傷害する反応性アストロサイトを誘導する

Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia p.481

A reactive astrocyte subtype termed A1 is induced after injury or disease of the central nervous system and subsequently promotes the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21029

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ウイルス学:ウイルス間コミュニケーションが溶菌–溶原化の決定を誘導する

Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions p.488

Some phages—viruses that infect bacteria—encode peptides that are secreted from infected cells and that, beyond a certain threshold, stimulate other viruses to switch from the lytic (killing the host cell) to lysogenic (dormant) phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature21049

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細胞生物学:非典型的な5′開始部位からの翻訳は腫瘍イニシエーションを促進する

Translation from unconventional 5′ start sites drives tumour initiation p.494

The translation of upstream open reading frames in skin tumour models protects some cancer-related mRNAs from global reductions in protein synthesis during the early stages of tumour initiation, suggesting that unconventional translation has a crucial role in tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature21036

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構造生物学:CLC塩素イオンチャネルの低温電子顕微鏡法によって得られた構造

Structure of a CLC chloride ion channel by cryo-electron microscopy p.500

Some CLC proteins are channels that conduct chloride ions passively, whereas others are active co-transporters, a difference that has been hard to understand given their high degree of sequence homology; now, cryo-electron microscopy is used to determine the structure of a mammalian CLC channel, shedding light on this question.

doi: 10.1038/nature20812

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Letters

物理学:トラップした反水素における1S–2S遷移の観測

Observation of the 1S–2S transition in trapped antihydrogen OPEN p.506

The 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen is observed, and its frequency is shown to be consistent with that expected for hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature21040

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化学:単一粒子表面における触媒反応の高空間分解能マッピング

High-spatial-resolution mapping of catalytic reactions on single particles p.511

The chemical conversion of N-heterocyclic carbene molecules attached to catalytic particles is monitored at high spatial resolution using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature20795

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地球科学:水の相殺的な影響が全球の陸域の二酸化炭素シンクの年々変化と気温を結び付ける

Compensatory water effects link yearly global land CO2 sink changes to temperature p.516

A study of how temperature and water availability fluctuations affect the carbon balance of land ecosystems reveals different controls on local and global scales, implying that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

doi: 10.1038/nature20780

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惑星科学:地球集積物質の経時的な同位体的性質

The isotopic nature of the Earth’s accreting material through time p.521

The mantle signatures of elements with distinct affinities for metal isotopically record different stages of Earth’s accretion, revealing that the Moon-forming impactor had a similar composition to the other impactors that made the Earth.

doi: 10.1038/nature20830

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惑星科学:レイトベニアが内部太陽系起源であることを示すルテニウム同位体の証拠

Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer p.525

All chondrites are shown to have Ru isotopic compositions that are more different from that of the Earth’s mantle the further from the Sun they formed; this means the Earth’s late veneer cannot derive from volatile-rich material formed in the outer Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature21045

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生態学:一夫多妻制の渉禽類の雄による北極圏での繁殖地サンプリング

Breeding site sampling across the Arctic by individual males of a polygynous shorebird p.528

Nomadic movement across the breeding range enables male pectoral sandpipers to display and sire offspring at multiple sites within a single breeding season, with tenure depending on breeding female numbers at each site.

doi: 10.1038/nature20813

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人間行動学:単一設問の群衆の知恵問題に対する1つの解

A solution to the single-question crowd wisdom problem p.532

The wisdom of the crowd can be improved by using an algorithm that selects the answer that is more popular than people predict, rather than the answer that is most popular.

doi: 10.1038/nature21054

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進化学:低温に適応した珪藻Fragilariopsis cylindrusの進化ゲノミクス

Evolutionary genomics of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus OPEN p.536

The genome of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton Fragilariopsis cylindrus differs markedly from the genomes of its more temperate relatives, with divergent alleles being differentially expressed in environmentally specific conditions such as freezing and darkness.

doi: 10.1038/nature20803

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幹細胞:HippoキナーゼLATS1とLATS2は ERαとのクロストークを介してヒト乳腺細胞の運命を制御する

The Hippo kinases LATS1 and 2 control human breast cell fate via crosstalk with ERα p.541

Cell fate perturbations underlie many human diseases, including breast cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which breast cell fate are regulated are largely unknown. The mammary gland epithelium consists of differentiated luminal epithelial and basal myoepithelial cells, as well as undifferentiated stem cells and more restricted progenitors. Breast cancer originates from this epithelium, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie breast epithelial hierarchy remain ill-defined. Here, we use a high-content confocal image-based short hairpin RNA screen to identify tumour suppressors that regulate breast cell fate in primary human breast epithelial cells. We show that ablation of the large tumour suppressor kinases (LATS) 1 and 2 (refs 5, 6), which are part of the Hippo pathway, promotes the luminal phenotype and increases the number of bipotent and luminal progenitors, the proposed cells-of-origin of most human breast cancers. Mechanistically, we have identified a direct interaction between Hippo and oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) signalling. In the presence of LATS, ERα was targeted for ubiquitination and Ddb1–cullin4-associated-factor 1 (DCAF1)-dependent proteasomal degradation. Absence of LATS stabilized ERα and the Hippo effectors YAP and TAZ (hereafter YAP/TAZ), which together control breast cell fate through intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms. Our findings reveal a non-canonical (that is, YAP/TAZ-independent) effect of LATS in the regulation of human breast cell fate.

doi: 10.1038/nature20829

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分子生物学:終止コドンを欠いたmRNA上でArfA–RF2が仲介する翻訳終結の構造基盤

Structural basis for ArfA–RF2-mediated translation termination on mRNAs lacking stop codons p.546

The structure of the bacterial ribosome stalled on a truncated mRNA in complex with ArfA and the release factor RF2 is presented, revealing how ArfA recruits RF2 to the ribosome and induces conformational changes within RF2 to enable translation termination in the absence of a stop codon.

doi: 10.1038/nature20821

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分子生物学:ArfAとRF2による非典型的な翻訳終結機構の構造基盤の解明

Mechanistic insights into the alternative translation termination by ArfA and RF2 p.550

The structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome in complex with ArfA, the release factor RF2, a short non-stop mRNA and a cognate P-site tRNA is presented, revealing how ArfA and RF2 facilitate alternative translation termination of the non-stop ribosomal complex using a stop-codon surrogate mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature20822

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分子生物学:リボソームに結合したArfAおよびRF2による翻訳と同時に起こる品質管理の構造的基盤

Structural basis of co-translational quality control by ArfA and RF2 bound to ribosome p.554

The structure of the bacterial ribosome in complex with the ArfA and the release factor RF2 shows how ArfA recruits RF2 to terminate translation of messenger RNAs that lack a stop codon in the ribosome.

doi: 10.1038/nature21053

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