Volume 530 Number 7589



Benefits of sharing p.129

A swift and effective response to emerging infectious diseases demands that researchers have ready access to the latest data on the pathogens responsible. There is still a long way to go to ensure this.

doi: 10.1038/530129a


A good precedent p.129

Jimmy Carter’s efforts to eradicate Guinea worm should be applauded.

doi: 10.1038/530130a

各国政府は、BECCS(Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage)のような実態の不明瞭な気候変動対策よりも、科学に基づいた対策に力を入れるべきだ。

Outside the bubble p.130

Governments must stop proposing solutions and invest in large-scale removal of carbon dioxide.

doi: 10.1038/530130b



Tasmanian bushfires threaten iconic ancient forests p.137

Blazes have encroached on ecosystems that date back more than 180 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19308


How should science funders deal with sexual harassers? p.138

US science agencies threaten harsh penalties, but many have yet to take action.

doi: 10.1038/530138a


High stakes as Japanese space observatory prepares for launch p.140

ASTRO-H will carry a technology that two earlier, ill-fated space telescopes failed to put into action.

doi: 10.1038/530140a


Biotech giant publishes failures to confirm high-profile science p.141

Amgen posts three studies at new online channel for discussing reproducibility.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19269


US panel greenlights creation of male 'three-person' embryos p.142

But federal law prevents regulators from approving the technique.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19290


Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge p.142

Obtaining conclusive evidence either way could take years, say researchers.

doi: 10.1038/530142a

News Features


The chips are down for Moore’s law p.144


doi: 10.1038/530144a


Does it take too long to publish research? p.148


doi: 10.1038/530148a

News & Views


Schizophrenia: From genetics to physiology at last p.162


doi: 10.1038/nature16874


Climate science: A great Arctic ice shelf p.163

新たにマッピングされた北極海海底の地形は、北極海盆がかつては厚さ1 kmの流動する棚氷に覆われていたことを示唆している。この棚氷はシベリア東部、カナダ領北極圏とバレンツ海にあった広大な氷床に由来するものである。

doi: 10.1038/nature16878


Ageing: Out with the old p.164


doi: 10.1038/nature16875


Plasma physics: Compact coupling for a two-stage accelerator p.165


doi: 10.1038/530165a


Ebola: Sequencing on the ground p.167


doi: 10.1038/530167a


Genetics: Asymmetric breaks in DNA cause sterility p.167


doi: 10.1038/nature16870


Crystallography: Resolution beyond the diffraction limit p.168


doi: 10.1038/530168a


Astrophysics: Exoplanets hidden in the gaps p.169


doi: 10.1038/530169a



Re-engineering the zinc fingers of PRDM9 reverses hybrid sterility in mice p.171

PRDM9 is a DNA-binding protein that controls the position of double-strand breaks in meiosis, and the gene that encodes it is responsible for hybrid infertility between closely related mouse species; this hybrid infertility is eliminated by introducing the zinc-finger domain sequence from the human version of the PRDM9 gene, a change which alters both the position of double-strand breaks and the symmetry of PRDM9 binding and suggests that PRDM9 may have a more general but transient role in the early stages of speciation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16931


Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4 p.177

Schizophrenia is associated with genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex locus; this study reveals that alleles at this locus associate with schizophrenia in proportion to their tendency to generate greater expression of complement component 4 (C4A) genes and that C4 promotes the elimination of synapses.

doi: 10.1038/nature16549


Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan p.184

When senescent cells accumulate during adulthood they negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in several organs; clearance of these cells delayed tumorigenesis in mice and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without overt side effects, suggesting that the therapeutic removal of senescent cells may be able to extend healthy lifespan.

doi: 10.1038/nature16932



Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators p.190

Laser-plasma particle accelerators offer much higher acceleration than conventional methods, which could enable high-energy applications; here two separate accelerator stages, driven by two independent lasers, are coupled using plasma-based optics.

doi: 10.1038/nature16525


Observing the Rosensweig instability of a quantum ferrofluid p.194

Spontaneous translational symmetry breaking is experimentally observed in a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate of dysprosium atoms, whereby an instability causes a spontaneous transition from an unstructured superfluid to an ordered arrangement of droplet crystals, which is surprisingly long-lived.

doi: 10.1038/nature16485


Observation of polar vortices in oxide superlattices p.198

In material systems with several interacting degrees of freedom, the complex interplay between these factors can give rise to exotic phases; now superlattices consisting of alternating layers of PbTiO3 and SrTiO3 are found to exhibit an unusual form of ferroelectric ordering in the PbTiO3 layers, in which the electric dipoles arrange themselves into regular, ordered arrays of vortex–antivortex structures.

doi: 10.1038/nature16463


Macromolecular diffractive imaging using imperfect crystals p.202

Crystal lattice disorder, which gives rise to a continuous diffraction pattern, is exploited to determine the structure of the integral membrane protein complex photosystem II to a higher resolution than could be achieved using Bragg diffraction alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature16949


Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age p.207

A reconstruction of changes in ocean oxygenation throughout the last glacial cycle shows that respired carbon was removed from the deep Southern Ocean during deglaciation and Antarctic warm events, consistent with a prominent role of reduced iron fertilization and enhanced ocean ventilation, modifying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 80,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature16514


Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests p.211

An analysis of above-ground biomass recovery during secondary succession in forest sites and plots, covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics.

doi: 10.1038/nature16512


New geological and palaeontological age constraint for the gorilla–human lineage split p.215

A substantial revision to the age of the Chorora Formation, Ethiopia, constraining the deposits to around 8 million years old and forming a revised age constraint for the human–gorilla lineage split.

doi: 10.1038/nature16510


A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence p.219

The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to the nucleus accumbens pathway mediates physical signs and aversive memory of opiate withdrawal.

doi: 10.1038/nature16954


Hoxb5 marks long-term haematopoietic stem cells and reveals a homogenous perivascular niche p.223

Until recently, complex multi-parameters were required for the isolation and identification of haematopoietic stem cells, complicating study of their biology in situ; here the authors have found that expression of a single gene, Hoxb5, defines haematopoietic stem cells with long-term reconstitution capacity, and that these cells are mainly found in direct contact with endothelial cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16943


Real-time, portable genome sequencing for Ebola surveillance p.228

A nanopore DNA sequencer is used for real-time genomic surveillance of the Ebola virus epidemic in the field in Guinea; the authors demonstrate that it is possible to pack a genomic surveillance laboratory in a suitcase and transport it to the field for on-site virus sequencing, generating results within 24 hours of sample collection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16996


Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors p.233

Structural and functional characterizations show that the specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum proteasome is sufficiently unique from that of the human proteasome to allow selective targeting with inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature16936


Backbone NMR reveals allosteric signal transduction networks in the β1-adrenergic receptor p.237

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane signalling proteins that trigger intracellular responses upon binding of extracellular ligands. Despite recent breakthroughs in GPCR crystallography, the details of ligand-induced signal transduction are not well understood owing to missing dynamical information. In principle, such information can be provided by NMR, but so far only limited data of functional relevance on few side-chain sites of eukaryotic GPCRs have been obtained. Here we show that receptor motions can be followed at virtually any backbone site in a thermostabilized mutant of the turkey β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Labelling with [15N]valine in a eukaryotic expression system provides over twenty resolved resonances that report on structure and dynamics in six ligand complexes and the apo form. The response to the various ligands is heterogeneous in the vicinity of the binding pocket, but gets transformed into a homogeneous readout at the intracellular side of helix 5 (TM5), which correlates linearly with ligand efficacy for the G protein pathway. The effect of several pertinent, thermostabilizing point mutations was assessed by reverting them to the native sequence. Whereas the response to ligands remains largely unchanged, binding of the G protein mimetic nanobody NB80 and G protein activation are only observed when two conserved tyrosines (Y227 and Y343) are restored. Binding of NB80 leads to very strong spectral changes throughout the receptor, including the extracellular ligand entrance pocket. This indicates that even the fully thermostabilized receptor undergoes activating motions in TM5, but that the fully active state is only reached in presence of Y227 and Y343 by stabilization with a G protein-like partner. The combined analysis of chemical shift changes from the point mutations and ligand responses identifies crucial connections in the allosteric activation pathway, and presents a general experimental method to delineate signal transmission networks at high resolution in GPCRs.

doi: 10.1038/nature16577

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