Small steps p.557

Violent opposition to nanotechnology should be countered with public awareness.

doi: 10.1038/488557b

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Open for business p.557

If Europe is to achieve the science-investment goals it set for the decade, it must make life easier for researchers coming from abroad.

doi: 10.1038/488557a

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Calorie restriction falters in the long run

doi: 10.1038/488569a

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Recycled dishes form telescope network

doi: 10.1038/488571a

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Pig fever sweeps across Russia

doi: 10.1038/488565a

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Doctors back circumcision

doi: 10.1038/488568a

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Brazil unveils tool to track emissions

doi: 10.1038/488570a

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US colliders jostle for funds

doi: 10.1038/488566a

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News Features


Nanotechnology: Armed resistance


doi: 10.1038/488576a

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After the Higgs: The new particle landscape


doi: 10.1038/488572a

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News & Views


Environmental science: Scorecard for the seas p.594


doi: 10.1038/488594a

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Immunology: Licensed in the lungs p.595


doi: 10.1038/488595a

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Ocean science: Ancient burial at sea p.596


doi: 10.1038/488596a

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Optics: Mixing waves in a diamond p.598


doi: 10.1038/488598a

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Epigenetics: Actors in the cell reprogramming drama p.599


doi: 10.1038/488599a

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Astronomy: Collision course p.600


doi: 10.1038/nature11482

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Microbiology: Antibiotics and adiposity p.601


doi: 10.1038/488601a

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X-ray and optical wave mixing p.603

Light–matter interactions are ubiquitous, and underpin a wide range of basic research fields and applied technologies. Although optical interactions have been intensively studied, their microscopic details are often poorly understood and have so far not been directly measurable. X-ray and optical wave mixing was proposed nearly half a century ago as an atomic-scale probe of optical interactions but has not yet been observed owing to a lack of sufficiently intense X-ray sources. Here we use an X-ray laser to demonstrate X-ray and optical sum-frequency generation. The underlying nonlinearity is a reciprocal-space probe of the optically induced charges and associated microscopic fields that arise in an illuminated material. To within the experimental errors, the measured efficiency is consistent with first-principles calculations of microscopic optical polarization in diamond. The ability to probe optical interactions on the atomic scale offers new opportunities in both basic and applied areas of science.

doi: 10.1038/nature11340

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A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth p.609

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0–3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.

doi: 10.1038/nature11360

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An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean p.615

The ocean plays a critical role in supporting human well-being, from providing food, livelihoods and recreational opportunities to regulating the global climate. Sustainable management aimed at maintaining the flow of a broad range of benefits from the ocean requires a comprehensive and quantitative method to measure and monitor the health of coupled human–ocean systems. We created an index comprising ten diverse public goals for a healthy coupled human–ocean system and calculated the index for every coastal country. Globally, the overall index score was 60 out of 100 (range 36–86), with developed countries generally performing better than developing countries, but with notable exceptions. Only 5% of countries scored higher than 70, whereas 32% scored lower than 50. The index provides a powerful tool to raise public awareness, direct resource management, improve policy and prioritize scientific research.

doi: 10.1038/nature11397

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Antibiotics in early life alter the murine colonic microbiome and adiposity p.621

Antibiotics administered in low doses have been widely used as growth promoters in the agricultural industry since the 1950s, yet the mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Because antimicrobial agents of different classes and varying activity are effective across several vertebrate species, we proposed that such subtherapeutic administration alters the population structure of the gut microbiome as well as its metabolic capabilities. We generated a model of adiposity by giving subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy to young mice and evaluated changes in the composition and capabilities of the gut microbiome. Administration of subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy increased adiposity in young mice and increased hormone levels related to metabolism. We observed substantial taxonomic changes in the microbiome, changes in copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, increases in colonic short-chain fatty acid levels, and alterations in the regulation of hepatic metabolism of lipids and cholesterol. In this model, we demonstrate the alteration of early-life murine metabolic homeostasis through antibiotic manipulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11400

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Graphene and boron nitride lateral heterostructures for atomically thin circuitry p.627

doi: 10.1038/nature11408

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Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica p.633

doi: 10.1038/nature11374

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‘Melt welt’ mechanism of extreme weakening of gabbro at seismic slip rates p.638

doi: 10.1038/nature11370

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Mutations in DMRT3 affect locomotion in horses and spinal circuit function in mice p.642

doi: 10.1038/nature11399

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Autistic-like behaviour and cerebellar dysfunction in Purkinje cell Tsc1 mutant mice p.647

doi: 10.1038/nature11310

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Early-stage epigenetic modification during somatic cell reprogramming by Parp1 and Tet2 p.652

doi: 10.1038/nature11333

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IDH1(R132H) mutation increases murine haematopoietic progenitors and alters epigenetics p.656

doi: 10.1038/nature11323

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Recurrent R-spondin fusions in colon cancer p.660

doi: 10.1038/nature11282

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Tumour suppressor RNF43 is a stem-cell E3 ligase that induces endocytosis of Wnt receptors p.665

doi: 10.1038/nature11308

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Novel role of PKR in inflammasome activation and HMGB1 release p.670

doi: 10.1038/nature11290

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T cells become licensed in the lung to enter the central nervous system p.675

doi: 10.1038/nature11337

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The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium p.680

doi: 10.1038/nature11313

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