目次

Editorials

25年間にわたる議論の末、気候変動問題で世界がついに1つになったが、これは始まりにすぎず、各国はこの困難な取り組みに今すぐ取り掛からなければならない。

A seismic shift p.307

After 25 years of divisive debate, the governments of the world unite in Paris to fight global warming. But the hard work must start now.

doi: 10.1038/528307a

ヨーロッパは、遺伝子編集植物の規制について、早急に明確にすべきだ。

Crop conundrum p.307

The EU should decide definitively whether gene-edited plants are covered by GM laws.

doi: 10.1038/528307b

シリア難民の流入がドイツの社会に摩擦を生んでいるが、科学界は、難民を受け入れ、いかすことができる。

Science for peace p.308

The German research community can benefit from the influx of migrants.

doi: 10.1038/528308a

News

気候変動枠組条約第21回締約国会議で、世界195か国が歴史的合意に達し、「パリ協定」を採択。

Nations approve historic global climate accord p.315

Agreement forged in Paris aims to hold warming ‘well below’ 2 °C.

doi: 10.1038/528315a

がんの発生には環境要因よりも内在的要因が重要である、という以前の結果に疑問を投げ掛ける論文が。

Cancer studies clash over mechanisms of malignancy p.317

Debate surrounds relative importance of environmental and intrinsic factors.

doi: 10.1038/528317a

中国と韓国が、黄海の境界問題の解決に向け、話し合いを。

Yellow Sea talks raise hopes for marine science p.318

Negotiations between South Korea and China to demarcate boundary could aid research.

doi: 10.1038/528318a

ヨーロッパでは、遺伝子編集植物に対し、現行のGM植物に関する規制が適用されるかが決まらず、研究者に苛立ちが。

Europe’s genetically edited plants stuck in legal limbo p.319

Scientists frustrated at delay in deciding if GM regulations apply to precision gene editing.

doi: 10.1038/528319a

ドイツの社会科学者たちが難民受け入れのための研究や支援を始め、排外主義への対処が必要と警告を。

German researchers pledge help in refugee crisis p.320

Social scientists launch integration studies and warn of need to counter rising xenophobia.

doi: 10.1038/528320a

News Features

科学と社会:消えない神話

The science myths that will not die p.322

世の中には、科学を妨げたり、人々に悪影響を及ぼしたりする見当違いの思い込みや希望的観測が数多く存在しており、こうした例をいくつか紹介する。

doi: 10.1038/528322a

News & Views

生物多様性:生物多様性は窒素が減少するにつれて回復する

Biodiversity: Recovery as nitrogen declines p.336

大気中窒素の沈着が原因の土壌汚染は生物多様性に対する大きな脅威となっている。英国で160年間続けられてきたパークグラス実験は、この脅威について独自の証拠を提供するとともに、窒素量の減少が多様性回復にどのようにつながるのかを明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/nature16320

量子物理学:異なるイオンのエンタングルメント

Quantum physics: Entanglement beyond identical ions p.337

量子粒子の制御は種類の異なるイオンをエンタングルさせる、つまり非古典的なやり方で相関させることができるまでに進展した。これは、新規な量子技術開発の機会をもたらすものである。

doi: 10.1038/528337a

再現性:神経回路で観察された実験法による食い違い

Reproducibility: Experimental mismatch in neural circuits p.338

同一の神経回路に対して行われた一過性の操作と結果が永続する操作では、結果として生じる行動変化が異なることがあるという知見は、こうした回路の解析を行う最良の方法はどういうものかという新たな疑問を投じることになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16323

マイクロバイオーム:植物由来の微生物群集を収集・整理する

Microbiomes: Curating communities from plants p.340

シロイヌナズナ(Arabidopsis)の葉と根に生息している細菌の大規模培養とゲノム塩基配列解読によって、微生物群集が構築され、機能するようになる過程を調べる道が開けてきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16319

気候科学:グリーンランドにおける氷床損失の歴史

Climate science: A history of Greenland's ice loss p.341

航空写真、リモートセンシング観測と地質学的証拠を組み合わせて、グリーンランド氷床で1900年以降に起こっている質量損失の状況が再構築された。これは気候科学研究者にとって非常に重要な情報資源となる。

doi: 10.1038/528341a

過去を振り返る:性決定遺伝子の25年間

In retrospect: Twenty-five years of thesex-determining gene p.343

哺乳類Y染色体上にあるSRY遺伝子が精巣の発生を推進することの発見は、性決定の遺伝学的基盤と進化の解明という長年にわたって行われてきた探求における転換点となった。

doi: 10.1038/528343a

Review

進化学:大量絶滅における希少化と生態系の未来

Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems p.345

The fossil record provides a nuanced view of ecosystem collapse over intervals of mass extinction, with abundant, biomineralizing and widespread species preferentially preserved; here the authors collate evidence for ‘mass rarity’ during these intervals, and suggest that the increasing rarity of modern species, rather than their outright extinction, may be a better metric for comparing the current biodiversity crisis to the ‘Big Five’ mass extinctions in the Earth’s history.

doi: 10.1038/nature16160

Articles

神経科学:鳴禽類のさえずりの発達における神経シーケンスの伸長と分割

Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development p.352

Neural sequences recorded from the vocal premotor area HVC in juvenile birds learning song ‘syllables’ show ‘prototype’ syllables forming early, with multiple new highly divergent neural sequences emerging from this precursor syllable as learning progresses.

doi: 10.1038/nature15741

神経科学:神経回路の操作がもたらす急激なオフターゲット効果

Acute off-target effects of neural circuit manipulations p.358

Transient manipulation of neural activity is widely used to probe the function of specific circuits, yet such targeted perturbations could also have indirect effects on downstream circuits that implement separate and independent functions; a study to test this reveals that transient perturbations of specific circuits in mammals and songbirds severely impair learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same brain areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature16442

環境微生物学:シロイヌナズナの葉および根の微生物相の機能的重複

Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota p.364

The microbiota of the rhizosphere (roots) and phyllosphere (leaves) of healthy plants consist of taxonomically structured bacterial communities; here the majority of species representing the main bacterial phyla from these two organs were isolated and genomes of about 400 representative bacteria were sequenced; the resources of cultured bacteria, corresponding genomes and a gnotobiotic plant system enabled an examination of the taxonomic overlap and functional specialization between the rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature16192

免疫学:リン酸化と直鎖状ユビキチンはA20による炎症抑制を誘導する

Phosphorylation and linear ubiquitin direct A20 inhibition of inflammation p.370

The authors define molecular mechanisms by which distinct domains of the ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 contribute to the regulation of inflammation and cell death.

doi: 10.1038/nature16165

Letters

宇宙物理学:高速で自転する重力崩壊型の超新星における大規模なダイナモと磁気乱流

A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae p.376

Global, three-dimensional simulations of rapidly rotating massive stars show that turbulence driven by magnetohydrodynamic instability is a promising mechanism for the formation of pulsars and magnetars, the latter potentially powering hyperenergetic and superluminous supernovae.

doi: 10.1038/nature15755

量子物理学:捕獲イオン量子ビットのための多元素論理ゲート

Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits p.380

Harnessing the entanglement of different ionic species could bring new flexibility in quantum computing, and now two groups independently demonstrate entanglement between different atomic species; Tan et al. achieve entanglement between different elements, whereas the related paper by Ballance et al. shows entanglement between different atomic isotopes, together demonstrating a first step towards mixed-species quantum logic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16186

量子物理学:2つの異なる同位体原子によるハイブリッド量子論理とベル不等式の検証

Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell’s inequality using two different atomic isotopes p.384

Harnessing the entanglement of different ionic species could bring new flexibility in quantum computing, and now two groups independently demonstrate entanglement between different atomic species; Ballance et al. achieve entanglement between different atomic isotopes, whereas the related paper by Tan et al. shows entanglement between different elements, together demonstrating a first step towards mixed-species quantum logic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16184

材料科学:極端な近接場における放射熱伝達

Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field p.387

Nanoscale radiative heat transfer between both dielectric and metal surfaces separated by gaps as small as two nanometres is characterized by large gap-dependent heat transfer enhancements that are accurately modelled by the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics and has important implications for technological design.

doi: 10.1038/nature16070

材料科学:冷却すると中間回転体相の形成を経て起こる油滴の自己整形

Self-shaping of oil droplets via the formation of intermediate rotator phases upon cooling p.392

A mechanism for the repression of homologous recombination in G1, the stage of the cell cycle preceding replication, is determined; the critical aspects are the interaction between BRCA1 and PALB2–BRCA2, and suppression of DNA-end resection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16189

気候科学:AD1900年以降のグリーンランド氷床質量損失の空間分布と時間分布

Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900 p.396

The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900–1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983–2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003–2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to predict global sea level rise.

doi: 10.1038/nature16183

生物多様性:草原における長期の窒素付加からの生物多様性の回復

Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition p.401

Data from the long-running Park Grass Experiment is used to show that grassland biodiversity is recovering since UK atmospheric nitrogen levels started to decline 25 years ago in all but the most acidic soils.

doi: 10.1038/nature16444

進化学:単一遺伝子座での性依存的優性が、サケの成熟年齢のばらつきを維持する

Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon p.405

Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is governed to a substantial extent by a locus showing dominance reversal, providing a resolution for sexual conflict in this trait, for which selection favours different ages in the two sexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16062

微生物学:細菌細胞外被中の酸化されたタンパク質を呼吸鎖中の電子を使って修復する

Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons p.409

The identification of an enzymatic system repairing proteins containing oxidized methionine in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly susceptible to oxidative damage by host defence mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature15764

がん:転移開始乳がん細胞の肺への定着は好中球に支えられている

Neutrophils support lung colonization of metastasis-initiating breast cancer cells p.413

Despite progress in the development of drugs that efficiently target cancer cells, treatments for metastatic tumours are often ineffective. The now well-established dependency of cancer cells on their microenvironment suggests that targeting the non-cancer-cell component of the tumour might form a basis for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. However, the as-yet poorly characterized contribution of host responses during tumour growth and metastatic progression represents a limitation to exploiting this approach. Here we identify neutrophils as the main component and driver of metastatic establishment within the (pre-)metastatic lung microenvironment in mouse breast cancer models. Neutrophils have a fundamental role in inflammatory responses and their contribution to tumorigenesis is still controversial. Using various strategies to block neutrophil recruitment to the pre-metastatic site, we demonstrate that neutrophils specifically support metastatic initiation. Importantly, we find that neutrophil-derived leukotrienes aid the colonization of distant tissues by selectively expanding the sub-pool of cancer cells that retain high tumorigenic potential. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the leukotriene-generating enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) abrogates neutrophil pro-metastatic activity and consequently reduces metastasis. Our results reveal the efficacy of using targeted therapy against a specific tumour microenvironment component and indicate that neutrophil Alox5 inhibition may limit metastatic progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature16140

遺伝学:LMO1のスーパーエンハンサー多型によって仲介される神経芽細胞腫の遺伝的素因

Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism p.418

A causal variant is identified at the LMO1 oncogene locus that drives the genetic association of LMO1 with neuroblastoma susceptibility; the causal SNP disrupts a GATA transcription factor binding site within a tissue-specific super-enhancer element in the first intron of LMO1, thereby affecting LMO1 expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature15540

分子生物学:G1期の細胞で相同組換えを抑制する機構

A mechanism for the suppression of homologous recombination in G1 cells p.422

A mechanism for the repression of homologous recombination in G1, the stage of the cell cycle preceding replication, is determined; the critical aspects are the interaction between BRCA1 and PALB2–BRCA2, and suppression of DNA-end resection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16142

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度