Volume 497 Number 7447



Plan for the future p.5

The White House urgently needs to set out a clear plan for how it intends to monitor the state of Earth.

doi: 10.1038/497005a


Fields of gold p.5

Research on transgenic crops must be done outside industry if it is to fulfil its early promise.

doi: 10.1038/497005b


Freed speech p.6

The reform of English libel law is a victory, even if it doesn’t achieve everything that was hoped.

doi: 10.1038/497006a


世界の二酸化炭素レベルが、来月にも400 ppmという懸念すべき値に。

Global carbon dioxide levels near worrisome milestone p.13

Concentrations of greenhouse gas will soon surpass 400 parts per million at sentinel spot.

doi: 10.1038/497013a


Flu papers spark row over credit for data p.14

Rush to publish on H7N9 avian flu upsets Chinese scientists.

doi: 10.1038/497014a


Disputed results a fresh blow for social psychology p.16

Failure to replicate intelligence-priming effects ignites row in research community.

doi: 10.1038/497016a


Transgenic salmon nears approval p.17

Slow US regulatory process highlights hurdles of getting engineered food animals to dinner tables.

doi: 10.1038/497017a


Targeted drugs to tackle hepatitis C p.18

But experts debate US screening recommendations.

doi: 10.1038/497018a

長く東南アジアで活動してきた臨床医のJeremy Farrarが、ウェルカムトラストの理事長に。

Clinician to head Wellcome Trust p.19

Jeremy Farrar to lead one of world’s largest research charities.

doi: 10.1038/497019a

News Features


Plant biotechnology: Tarnished promise p.21


doi: 10.1038/497021a


GM crops: A story in numbers p.22


doi: 10.1038/497022a


Case studies: A hard look at GM crops p.24


doi: 10.1038/497024a


Transgenics: A new breed p.27


doi: 10.1038/497027a

News & Views


Neuroscience: Navigation with a cognitive map p.42


doi: 10.1038/nature12095


Earth science: Small differences in sameness p.43


doi: 10.1038/497043a


Structural biology: Active arrestin proteins crystallized p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature12096


Solid-state physics: Single spins in silicon see the light p.46


doi: 10.1038/497046a


Optical devices: Seeing the world through an insect's eyes p.47


doi: 10.1038/497047a


Molecular biology: The ends justify the means p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature12098


Biochemistry: Oxidation controls the DUB step p.49


doi: 10.1038/497049a



Globally networked risks and how to respond p.51

Strongly connected and interdependent networks create risks of global-scale catastrophic failure; to make networked risks more manageable, it is suggested to establish a ‘Global Systems Science’.

doi: 10.1038/nature12047


Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production p.60

This Perspective discusses the emerging advances in plant membrane transporters, which can be used to improve crop yields, nutritional value, and environmental stress resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature11909



Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma OPEN p.67

An integrative genomic analysis of several hundred endometrial carcinomas shows that a minority of tumour samples carry copy number alterations or TP53 mutations and many contain key cancer-related gene mutations, such as those involved in canonical pathways and chromatin remodelling; a reclassification of endometrial tumours into four distinct types is proposed, which may have an effect on patient treatment regimes.

doi: 10.1038/nature12113


Hippocampal place-cell sequences depict future paths to remembered goals p.74

It is known that compressed sequences of hippocampal place cells can ‘replay’ previous navigational trajectories in linearly constrained mazes; here, rat place-cell sequences representing two-dimensional spatial trajectories were observed before navigational decisions, and predicted the immediate navigational path.

doi: 10.1038/nature12112


Structures of the human and Drosophila 80S ribosome p.80

High-resolution cryo-EM density maps are used to present the structures of Drosophila and human 80S ribosomes in complex with eEF2, E-site transfer RNA and Stm1-like proteins, and reveal the presence of two additional structural layers in the ribosomes of metazoan eukaryotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature12104


量子物理学:3 m離れた固体キュービット間の前触れ量子もつれ

Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres p.86

Entanglement of two electron spin qubits in diamond with a spatial separation of three metres is reported; such entanglement can be combined with recently achieved initialization, readout and entanglement operations on local long-lived nuclear spin registers, and paves the way for deterministic long-distance teleportation, quantum repeaters and extended quantum networks.

doi: 10.1038/nature12016


Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon p.91

A hybrid approach to detecting individual defect spins in solids, whereby an optically induced spin change is detected electronically, offers the high fidelities required for quantum information processing devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature12081


Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye p.95

Digital cameras with layouts inspired by the compound, hemispherical designs of arthropod eyes have been built by combining elastomeric optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors.

doi: 10.1038/nature12083


Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies p.100

The disappearance of non-mass-dependent sulphur isotope anomalies from the rock record is thought to indicate the increase in atmospheric oxygen concentration from its initial, persistently low level; however, as a result of long-term surface recycling these anomalies may in fact survive in the sedimentary record for as long as 100 million years after an increase in atmospheric oxygen.

doi: 10.1038/nature12021


Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs p.104

Estimations of body shape and three-dimensional digital reconstructions of representative archosaurs along the ancestral bird line support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution but indicate that an accelerated change, rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures, occurred within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs).

doi: 10.1038/nature12059


Non-invasive analysis of acquired resistance to cancer therapy by sequencing of plasma DNA p.108

A proof of principle study shows that by exome sequencing of cell-free circulating DNA from cancer patient plasma samples, the genomic evolution of metastatic cancers and the acquisition of resistance in response to therapy can be tracked over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature12065


Random convergence of olfactory inputs in the Drosophila mushroom body p.113

In Drosophila, olfactory sensory neurons project to spatially invariant loci (glomeruli) and stereotyped circuitry is maintained in projections to a brain centre thought to mediate innate behaviours; here it is shown that neurons of the mushroom body, a centre that translates olfactory information into learned behaviours, integrate input from an apparently random combination of glomeruli, which could allow the fly to contextualize novel sensory experiences.

doi: 10.1038/nature12063


Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization p.118

The current model to explain accurate chromosome segregation after DNA replication holds that kinetochore–microtubule attachments exert tension across the centromere and are stabilized by spatial separation from inner centromere-localized Aurora B; here an alternative model is presented, wherein active Aurora B produced by clustering is sufficient to ensure biorientation through a mechanism that is intrinsic to the kinetochore.

doi: 10.1038/nature12057


Modulation of TET2 expression and 5-methylcytosine oxidation by the CXXC domain protein IDAX p.122

The CXXC domains of TET2 (encoded by the distinct gene IDAX) and TET3 are found to have previously unknown roles in the regulation of TET proteins through the activation of caspases and subsequent reduction in TET catalytic activity; this regulation is dependent on DNA binding through the CXXC domain.

doi: 10.1038/nature12052


Extensive transcriptional heterogeneity revealed by isoform profiling p.127

Variation among RNA transcript isoforms can be generated from alternative start and polyadenylation sites, and results in RNAs and proteins with different properties being generated from the same genomic sequence; here a new method termed transcript isoform sequencing is described in yeast, and the method allows a fuller exploration of transcriptome diversity across the compact yeast genome.

doi: 10.1038/nature12121


The catalytic mechanism for aerobic formation of methane by bacteria p.132

A mechanism is proposed for the formation of methane by bacteria, through the cleavage of a highly unreactive carbon–phosphorus bond in methyl phosphonate by PhnJ in the bacterial C–P lyase complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature12061


Structure of active β-arrestin-1 bound to a G-protein-coupled receptor phosphopeptide p.137

The crystal structure of β-arrestin-1 in complex with a fully phosphorylated 29-amino-acid carboxy-terminal peptide derived from the V2 vasopressin receptor is reported; the structure of the complex shows striking conformational differences in β-arrestin-1 when compared with its inactive conformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature12120


Crystal structure of pre-activated arrestin p44 p.142

The crystal structure of arrestin-1 is reported, in which the activation step is mimicked by C-tail truncation; the structure of this pre-activated arrestin is markedly different from the basal state and gives an insight into the activation mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature12133

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