ヒトの全ての主要な組織における遺伝子発現と調節を調べるGTEx(Genotype-Tissue Expression)プロジェクトの長年の努力が、実を結んだ。

A more personal view p.157

Long-planned genetic catalogue probes gene regulation.

doi: 10.1038/550157a

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Climate meetings pose serious test in the Trump era p.158

Annual jamborees fail to ignite public passion but are crucial to progress on global-warming.

doi: 10.1038/550158a

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Marine snow falls heaviest at the Equator p.158

Organic matter drifts down to the equatorial ocean floor in distinct patterns.

doi: 10.1038/550158b

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Navajo Nation reconsiders ban on genetic research p.165

Tribal leaders are developing a policy for genetic research and data sharing, potentially ending a 15-year moratorium.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22780

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Scientists plead with Brazilian government to restore funding p.166

If officials don't act soon, research institutions could start shutting down next year.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22757

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Cryo-electron microscopy wins chemistry Nobel p.167

Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson share the prize for developing a technique to image biomolecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22738

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The ambitious effort to document California’s changing deserts p.168

Ecologists catalogue bird and mammal populations as warming transforms Death Valley.

doi: 10.1038/550168a

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Gene-expression study raises thorny ethical issues p.169

Project obtains tissues from recently deceased individuals to look for the origins of disease.

doi: 10.1038/550169a

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News Features


How the United States plans to trap its biggest stash of nuclear-weapons waste in glass p.172


doi: 10.1038/550172a

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The rise and fall and rise again of 23andMe p.174

Anne Wojcickiが起業した遺伝子検査会社23andMeの、立ち上げから、深刻な危機を経て、再び科学的に脚光を浴びるようになるまでをたどる。

doi: 10.1038/550174a

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News & Views


Human genomics: Cracking the regulatory code p.190


doi: 10.1038/550190a

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Mathematics: A pariah finds a home p.191


doi: 10.1038/nature24147

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Cancer: Tumours addicted to drugs are vulnerable p.192


doi: 10.1038/nature24148

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Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature p.194


doi: 10.1038/550194b

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Obesity: Receptors identified for a weight regulator p.195


doi: 10.1038/nature24143

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Astronomy: Ring detected around a dwarf planet p.197


doi: 10.1038/550197a

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工学:最高1673 Kの高温液体金属をポンプ輸送する

Pumping liquid metal at high temperatures up to 1,673 kelvin p.199

By using ceramics for the mechanical and sealing components of a mechanical pump, liquid metal can be circulated continuously at temperatures at least as high as 1,673 kelvin.

doi: 10.1038/nature24054

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Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues OPEN p.204

Samples of different body regions from hundreds of human donors are used to study how genetic variation influences gene expression levels in 44 disease-relevant tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature24277

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The transcription fidelity factor GreA impedes DNA break repair p.214

In Escherichia coli, the control of RNA polymerase backtracking by transcription elongation factors impairs DNA break repair by affecting RecBCD resection and consequently RecA loading at sites far removed from the original DNA break.

doi: 10.1038/nature23907

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The size, shape, density and ring of the dwarf planet Haumea from a stellar occultation p.219

Observations of a stellar occultation of Haumea, one of the four known trans-Neptunian dwarf planets, constrain its size, shape and density, and reveal a ring coplanar with Haumea’s largest moon.

doi: 10.1038/nature24051

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Light-field-driven currents in graphene p.224

Light-field-driven control of electrons in a conductor is demonstrated by inducing a current by laser pulses in graphene that is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature23900

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Layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional materials into wafer-scale heterostructures p.229

High-performance semiconductor films with vertical compositions that are designed to atomic-scale precision provide the foundation for modern integrated circuitry and novel materials discovery. One approach to realizing such films is sequential layer-by-layer assembly, whereby atomically thin two-dimensional building blocks are vertically stacked, and held together by van der Waals interactions. With this approach, graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides—which represent one- and three-atom-thick two-dimensional building blocks, respectively—have been used to realize previously inaccessible heterostructures with interesting physical properties. However, no large-scale assembly method exists at present that maintains the intrinsic properties of these two-dimensional building blocks while producing pristine interlayer interfaces, thus limiting the layer-by-layer assembly method to small-scale proof-of-concept demonstrations. Here we report the generation of wafer-scale semiconductor films with a very high level of spatial uniformity and pristine interfaces. The vertical composition and properties of these films are designed at the atomic scale using layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional building blocks under vacuum. We fabricate several large-scale, high-quality heterostructure films and devices, including superlattice films with vertical compositions designed layer-by-layer, batch-fabricated tunnel device arrays with resistances that can be tuned over four orders of magnitude, band-engineered heterostructure tunnel diodes, and millimetre-scale ultrathin membranes and windows. The stacked films are detachable, suspendable and compatible with water or plastic surfaces, which will enable their integration with advanced optical and mechanical systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature23905

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Patchy particles made by colloidal fusion p.234

By exploiting geometric constraints and interfacial forces instead of chemistry, colloidal clusters can be controllably coalesced into particles with uniformly distributed surface patches.

doi: 10.1038/nature23901

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The impact of rare variation on gene expression across tissues OPEN p.239

The authors show that rare genetic variants contribute to large gene expression changes across diverse human tissues and provide an integrative method for interpretation of rare variants in individual genomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature24267

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Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues OPEN p.244

Multiple transcriptome approaches, including single-cell sequencing, demonstrate that escape from X chromosome inactivation is widespread and occasionally variable between cells, chromosomes, and tissues, resulting in sex-biased expression of at least 60 genes and potentially contributing to sex-specific differences in health and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature24265

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Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals p.249

Using the GTEx data and others, a comprehensive analysis of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in mammals is presented; targets of the various ADAR enzymes are identified, as are several potential regulators of editing, such as AIMP2.

doi: 10.1038/nature24041

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Non-homeostatic body weight regulation through a brainstem-restricted receptor for GDF15 p.255

GDNF receptor alpha-like is a brainstem-restricted receptor for growth and differentiation factor 15, regulating appetite and body weight in non-homeostatic conditions by activating the emergency circuit response to disease and toxin stresses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24042

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Hippo pathway deficiency reverses systolic heart failure after infarction p.260

Deletion of the Hippo pathway component Salvador in mouse hearts with established ischaemic heart failure after myocardial infarction induces a reparative genetic program with increased scar border vascularity, reduced fibrosis, and recovery of pumping function.

doi: 10.1038/nature24045

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TORC1 organized in inhibited domains (TOROIDs) regulate TORC1 activity p.265

In budding yeast, glucose withdrawal, via the Rag GTPases, leads to TORC1 inhibition through its re-organization into a giant, vacuole-associated helix named a TOROID (TORC1 organized in inhibited domain).

doi: 10.1038/nature24021

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Cancer drug addiction is relayed by an ERK2-dependent phenotype switch p.270

The identification of an ERK2–JUNB–FRA1 signalling pathway that drives addiction to therapeutic drugs in cancer cells, and an ERK2-dependent phenotype switch that precedes cell death after drug withdrawal, may help to guide therapies that exploit the addiction phenotype.

doi: 10.1038/nature24037

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A viral Sm-class RNA base-pairs with mRNAs and recruits microRNAs to inhibit apoptosis p.275

Herpesvirus saimiri expresses a small nuclear RNA named HSUR2, with which it recruits two cellular microRNAs to repress specific mRNA targets and thereby inhibit apoptosis in infected T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24034

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RNA targeting with CRISPR–Cas13 p.280

The class 2 type VI RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR–Cas effector Cas13 can be engineered for RNA knockdown and binding, expanding the CRISPR toolset with a flexible platform for studying RNA in mammalian cells and therapeutic development.

doi: 10.1038/nature24049

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