目次

Editorials

中国では、動物実験に関する倫理的な圧力が世界の他の国々と比べて少なく、この状況を賢く生かすべきだ。

Monkeying around p.281

China, with its freedom from the ethical pressures experienced by researchers elsewhere, is poised to become the go-to country for work on non-human primates.

doi: 10.1038/532281a

EUは、技術革新を促進するために、官僚主義を排し、手続きや制度を簡素化する必要がある。

Red-tape tangle p.282

Attempts by the European Union to stimulate innovation are stifled by bureaucracy.

doi: 10.1038/532282a

政治家は、科学に精通していることが望ましい。

Expect knowledge p.282

We are gratified when a politician shows that they know about science, but they all should.

doi: 10.1038/532282b

News

ヒト胚を使ったゲノム編集研究の機運が高まっているが、倫理的にはまだまだ議論が。

Gene-editing research in human embryos gains momentum p.289

Experiments are now approved in Sweden, China and the United Kingdom.

doi: 10.1038/532289a

北朝鮮が、欧米の科学者に対し、自国にある巨大火山「白頭山」の調査の許可を。

North Korea lets scientists peer inside dangerous volcano p.290

Seismic images from an unprecedented international collaboration hint at future eruption hazards.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19751

欧州イノベーション・技術機構(EIT)は巨額予算の割に効果が上がっていないと、会計検査院が批判を。

Multibillion-euro innovation hub slammed by auditors p.291

Damning report blames failure to deliver on goals on management problems and funding issues.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19753

抗ヘビ毒血清の不足問題に関して、合成生物学的手法が解決策となり得ることを示唆する成果が。

Synthetic biology tackles global antivenom shortage p.292

Lab-made antibodies could produce high-volume, high-quality snakebite treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19755

米国農務省が、遺伝子編集マッシュルームを規制対象ではないと認め、CRISPR–Cas技術を使った食物が初めて市場に。

Gene-edited CRISPR mushroom escapes US regulation p.293

A fungus engineered with the CRISPR–Cas9 technique can be cultivated and sold without further oversight.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19754

実験用マウスを実験用でないマウスと一緒に飼育することで、よりヒトに近い免疫系モデルマウスが得られることが明らかに。

Dirty room-mates make lab mice more useful p.294

Housing lab mice with pet-shop mice gives them more human-like immune systems.

doi: 10.1038/532294a

News Features

開発:北極圏の夢

Cold truths at the top of the world p.296

独立を目指すグリーンランドは、地球上で最も手付かずのまま保たれている自然環境を守りながら経済発展する道を模索している。

doi: 10.1038/532296a

動物実験:実験用サルの王国

Monkey kingdom p.300

中国が、霊長類を使った動物実験で世界の先頭に立とうとしている。

doi: 10.1038/532300a

News & Views

マイクロバイオーム:無数の微生物のための食餌

Microbiome: Eating for trillions p.316

栄養状態の悪い小児の腸内の細菌を調べた3つの研究から、このような微生物相をマウスに移植した場合、ある種の微生物、あるいはヒト母乳中に含まれる糖を補給してやればマウスが正常に成長できるようになることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17887

気候科学:全球的な大災害についての誤った考え

Climate science: Misconceptions of global catastrophe p.317

気象の変化、ひいては気候変動に対する米国民の態度について、1970年代以降の米国の移住パターンに基づく解析が行われた。得られた結果は、全球的な気候政策の成功に大きく関わるものである。

doi: 10.1038/532317a

エピジェネティクス:哺乳類の見つかりにくいDNA塩基

Epigenetics: An elusive DNA base in mammals p.319

N6-メチルアデニンと呼ばれる修飾型のアデニン塩基がマウスDNA中で見つかった。これは、哺乳類が持つ修飾型塩基はシトシン誘導体だけであるとする説を突き崩す結果である。

doi: 10.1038/nature17315

構造生物学:抗うつ薬の作用の仕組み

Structural biology: Antidepressants at work p.320

セロトニン輸送体タンパク質であるSERTについて、2種類の抗うつ剤と複合体を作った状態の構造が明らかにされた。この結果によってこの種の薬剤の作用機作が明らかになり、将来の薬剤開発に向けた標的候補が示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature17883

免疫学:小胞体ストレスは炎症のきっかけとなる

Immunology: Organelle stress triggers inflammation p.321

細菌感染によって細胞内で小胞体ストレスと呼ばれる事態が誘導されると、細胞内のNOD1およびNOD2受容体が自然炎症を引き起こすことが、今回示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature17882

Articles

幹細胞:性質の異なる骨髄血管はそれぞれ別種の造血調節を行っている

Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis p.323

Bone marrow endothelial cells have dual roles in the regulation of haematopoietic stem cell maintenance and in the trafficking of blood cells between the bone marrow and the blood circulatory system; this study shows that these different functions are regulated by distinct types of endothelial blood vessels with different permeability properties, affecting the metabolic state of their neighbouring stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature17624

エピジェネティクス:哺乳類の胚性幹細胞のDNAにおけるN6-アデニンのメチル化

DNA methylation on N6-adenine in mammalian embryonic stem cells p.329

The prevalence of N6-adenine DNA methylation in mammals was previously unknown; this study reveals that N6-methyladenine can be found in mouse embryonic stem cells, especially at subfamilies of young (<1.5 million years old) LINE-1 transposons.

doi: 10.1038/nature17640

構造生物学:ヒトセロトニン輸送体のX線構造と作用機構

X-ray structures and mechanism of the human serotonin transporter p.334

X-ray crystal structures of the human serotonin transporter (SERT) bound to the antidepressants (S)-citalopram or paroxetine show that the antidepressants lock the protein in an outward-open conformation, and directly block serotonin from entering its binding site; the structures define the mechanism of antidepressant action in SERT and pave the way for future drug design.

doi: 10.1038/nature17629

Letters

宇宙物理学:拡散したコアを伴う銀河群内にある太陽質量の170億倍のブラックホール

A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core p.340

The galaxy NGC 1600 is found to contain an enormous black hole of 17 billion solar masses—the first black hole of such a size to be found in an environment outside the richest clusters of galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/nature17197

超伝導:Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+xにおけるクーパー対密度波の検出

Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x p.343

The quantum condensate of Cooper pairs forming a superconductor was originally conceived as being translationally invariant. In theory, however, pairs can exist with finite momentum Q, thus generating a state with a spatially modulated Cooper-pair density. Such a state has been created in ultracold 6Li gas but never observed directly in any superconductor. It is now widely hypothesized that the pseudogap phase of the copper oxide superconductors contains such a ‘pair density wave’ state. Here we report the use of nanometre-resolution scanned Josephson tunnelling microscopy to image Cooper pair tunnelling from a d-wave superconducting microscope tip to the condensate of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. We demonstrate condensate visualization capabilities directly by using the Cooper-pair density variations surrounding zinc impurity atoms and at the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x crystal supermodulation. Then, by using Fourier analysis of scanned Josephson tunnelling images, we discover the direct signature of a Cooper-pair density modulation at wavevectors QP ≈ (0.25, 0)2π/a0 and (0, 0.25)2π/a0 in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. The amplitude of these modulations is about five per cent of the background condensate density and their form factor exhibits primarily s or s′ symmetry. This phenomenology is consistent with Ginzburg–Landau theory when a charge density wave with d-symmetry form factor and wavevector QC = QP coexists with a d-symmetry superconductor; it is also predicted by several contemporary microscopic theories for the pseudogap phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature17411

材料化学:負のガス吸着転移を伴う圧力増幅骨格材料

A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions p.348

For adsorption processes, gas uptake usually increases with increasing pressure; however, here the phenomenon of negative gas adsorption is demonstrated in a metal–organic framework, which undergoes a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction, releasing guest molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature17430

有機化学:銅触媒を用いたアミノアルコールのエナンチオ選択的立体分岐型合成

Copper-catalysed enantioselective stereodivergent synthesis of amino alcohols p.353

Here, a method is described by which to generate all possible stereoisomers of certain amino alcohols—a protocol that should see use in drug discovery and development, where it is important to determine the differing effects of stereoisomeric drug candidates.

doi: 10.1038/nature17191

気候科学:米国における気象の近年の改善と予測される悪化

Recent improvement and projected worsening of weather in the United States p.357

Population-weighted analysis of US weather conditions shows that the nation’s weather has generally become more pleasant since 1974, possibly explaining the lack of broad public support for action on climate change; projections of future US weather indicate that conditions will probably worsen.

doi: 10.1038/nature17441

地球物理学:同じアスペリティで低速と高速の破壊を示すパークフィールドの微動

The Parkfield tremors reveal slow and fast ruptures on the same asperity p.361

A tremor source on the San Andreas Fault produced an unusual sequence of low-frequency earthquakes until it was disrupted by the 2004 Parkfield earthquake; the peculiar recurrence pattern has now been modelled, showing that such slip behaviour occurs when the tremor asperity size is close to the critical nucleation size of earthquakes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17190

考古学:インドネシアのリャン・ブアのフローレス原人に関する層序および年代の修正

Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia p.366

New excavations in Liang Bua, where the remains of the ‘Hobbit’ (Homo floresiensis) were discovered, show that this diminutive human species used this cave between 190,000 and 50,000 years ago, and not until as recently as 12,000 years ago as previously interpreted; modern humans have been present in Australia since around 50,000 years ago, so whether Homo floresiensis survived long enough to witness the arrival of modern humans is still an open question.

doi: 10.1038/nature17179

神経科学:視覚野興奮性ネットワークの解剖学的構造と機能

Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex p.370

Two-photon calcium imaging and electron microscopy were used to explore the relationship between structure and function in mouse primary visual cortex, showing that layer 2/3 neurons are connected in subnetworks, that pyramidal neurons with similar orientation selectivity preferentially form synapses with each other, and that neurons with similar orientation tuning form larger synapses; this study exemplifies functional connectomics as a powerful method for studying the organizational logic of cortical networks.

doi: 10.1038/nature17192

細胞生物学:日周性のマグネシウム流量変化は細胞の計時とエネルギー収支を調節している

Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance p.375

Circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties and tune cellular metabolism both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga.

doi: 10.1038/nature17407

幹細胞:造血幹細胞の血管性ニッチの加齢に依存した調節

Age-dependent modulation of vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells p.380

Notch signalling in endothelial cells of the bone induces change in the capillaries and mesenchymal stem cells of the environment to support haematopoietic stem cell amplification.

doi: 10.1038/nature17638

微生物学:原核生物の適応免疫系の多様性によって生じる恩恵

The diversity-generating benefits of a prokaryotic adaptive immune system p.385

Population-level spacer diversity is a key fitness determinant of CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems because it limits the emergence of escape virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature17436

免疫学:活性化Tリンパ球では分裂後に細胞非対称的代謝が維持される

Metabolic maintenance of cell asymmetry following division in activated T lymphocytes p.389

The asymmetric distribution of mTORC1 and c-Myc in the first division of daughter cells of activated CD8 T cells affects the proliferation, metabolism and differentiation potential of their progeny.

doi: 10.1038/nature17442

免疫学:NOD1およびNOD2シグナル伝達は小胞体ストレスと炎症をつなぐ

NOD1 and NOD2 signalling links ER stress with inflammation p.394

A novel link between the unfolded protein response and NOD1/2 innate immune signalling, showing that NOD1/2 are required for ER-stress-induced IL-6 production in response to infection with Brucella abortus.

doi: 10.1038/nature17631

細胞生物学:USP14は、複数の部位がユビキチン化されてプロテアソームに結合している基質を脱ユビキチン化する

USP14 deubiquitinates proteasome-bound substrates that are ubiquitinated at multiple sites p.398

The proteasome-associated enzyme USP14 regulates protein degradation by removing ubiquitin from proteins; here it is shown that USP14 removes ubiquitin chains from in vitro generated cyclin B conjugates en bloc and within milliseconds, before the proteasome has a chance to initiate degradation, and proceeds until a single chain remains.

doi: 10.1038/nature17433

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