Volume 532 Number 7600



Anticipating artificial intelligence p.413

Concerns over AI are not simply fear-mongering. Progress in the field will affect society profoundly, and it is important to make sure that the changes benefit everyone.

doi: 10.1038/532413a


On a downer p.413

The United Nations has chosen to keep the war on drugs going — but it can’t win.

doi: 10.1038/532413b


Biden time p.414

The US vice-president’s cancer project is winning hearts and minds.

doi: 10.1038/532414a



Devastating wheat fungus appears in Asia for first time p.421

Scientists race to determine origin of Bangladesh outbreak, which they warn could spread farther afield.

doi: 10.1038/532421a


AI talent grab sparks excitement and concern p.422

Google, Facebook and other tech firms are changing how artificial-intelligence research is done.

doi: 10.1038/532422a


Scientists worry as cancer moonshots multiply p.424

Fears rise that US government and private funders are working at cross purposes.

doi: 10.1038/532424a


Researchers push for personalized tumour vaccines p.425

Enthusiasm comes amid worries that the therapy may prove too complex to manufacture.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19801


Europe plans giant billion-euro quantum technologies project p.426

Third European Union flagship will be similar in size and ambition to graphene and human brain initiatives.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19796


AstraZeneca launches project to sequence 2 million genomes p.427

Drug company aims to pool genomic and medical data in hunt for rare genetic sequences associated with disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19797

News Features


Killer landslides: The lasting legacy of Nepal’s quake p.428


doi: 10.1038/532428a


The quiet revolutionary: How the co-discovery of CRISPR explosively changed Emmanuelle Charpentier’s life p.432

CRISPR–Cas9技術の開発によってEmmanuelle Charpentierの人生は急変したが、この技術開発を可能にした彼女の研究意欲とスタイルは変わっていない。

doi: 10.1038/532432a

News & Views


Ocean science: The rise of Rhizaria p.444


doi: 10.1038/nature17892


Materials science: Cracks help membranes to stay hydrated p.445


doi: 10.1038/532445a


Palaeontology: Getting the measure of a monster p.447


doi: 10.1038/nature17885


Nuclear physics: Four neutrons together momentarily p.448


doi: 10.1038/nature17884


Neuroscience: Fault tolerance in the brain p.449


doi: 10.1038/nature17886


Mathematical physics: Glitches in time p.450


doi: 10.1038/532450a



Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex p.453

It has been proposed that language meaning is represented throughout the cerebral cortex in a distributed ‘semantic system’, but little is known about the details of this network; here, voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI data collected while subjects listened to natural stories is used to create a detailed atlas that maps representations of word meaning in the human brain.

doi: 10.1038/nature17637


Robust neuronal dynamics in premotor cortex during motor planning p.459

In mouse cortex, ‘preparatory’ activity that encodes future movements is remarkably robust against large-scale perturbations; this robustness is achieved by corrective signals from unperturbed parts of the network.

doi: 10.1038/nature17643


Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean p.465

Plankton communities in the top 150 m of the nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic global ocean that are most associated with carbon export include unexpected taxa, such as Radiolaria, alveolate parasites, and Synechococcus and their phages, and point towards potential functional markers predicting a significant fraction of the variability in carbon export in these regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature16942



Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty p.471

A data-analytical approach that can extract the history and dynamics of complex systems from noisy snapshots on timescales much shorter than the uncertainty with which the data were recorded is described; the approach is demonstrated by extracting the dynamics on the few-femtosecond timescale from experimental data recorded with 300-femtosecond timing uncertainty.

doi: 10.1038/nature17627


Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice p.476

The simplest form of the Hubbard model includes only on-site interactions, but by placing an optical lattice filled with ultracold rubidium atoms into an optical cavity the Hubbard model is implemented with competing long- and short-range interactions; four phases emerge, namely, a superfluid phase, a Mott insulating phase, a supersolid phase and a charge density wave phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature17409


Nanocrack-regulated self-humidifying membranes p.480

Nanometre-scale cracks in a hydrophobic surface coating applied to hydrocarbon proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes work as tiny valves, delaying water desorption and maintaining ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification.

doi: 10.1038/nature17634


The pentadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction p.484

A modification to the classic Diels–Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, termed the pentadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction, is reported; this reaction generates a highly reactive intermediate, an α,3-dehydrotoluene, that can be captured using various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products.

doi: 10.1038/nature17429


Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer p.489

Aircraft measurements, laboratory photolysis experiments and modelling calculations reveal a mechanism for the recycling of nitric acid into nitrogen oxides; this enables observations to be reconciled with model studies, and suggests that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source.

doi: 10.1038/nature17195


Bubble accumulation and its role in the evolution of magma reservoirs in the upper crust p.492

Here, the authors model the fluid dynamics that controls the transport of the magmatic volatile phase (MVP) in crystal-rich and crystal-poor magmas; they find that the MVP tends to migrate efficiently in crystal-rich parts of a magma reservoir but to accumulate in crystal-poor parts—possibly explaining why crystal-poor silicic magmas are particularly prone to erupting.

doi: 10.1038/nature17401


The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate p.496

The Tully monster (Tullimonstrum), a problematic fossil from the 309–307-million-year-old Mazon Creek biota of Illinois, is shown to be not only a vertebrate but also akin to lampreys, increasing the morphological disparity of that group.

doi: 10.1038/nature16992


The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity p.500

The eyes of the Tully monster (Tullimonstrum) possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17647

生物海洋学:in situ画像化法によって明らかになった全球海洋の大型原生生物のバイオマス

In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean p.504

An in situ imaging technique has been used to show that large rhizarian plankton represent a much larger biomass than previously thought, meaning that they are likely to make an important contribution to ocean ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17652


Musashi-2 attenuates AHR signalling to expand human haematopoietic stem cells p.508

The RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 increases the self-renewing abilities of human haematopoietic stem cells, which have the potential to be used for regenerative therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature17665


Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice p.512

The immune system of laboratory mice raised in an ultra-hygienic environment resembles that of newborn humans, but can be induced to resemble the immune system of adult humans or 'dirty' mice by co-housing with pet store-bought mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature17655

遺伝子工学:CRISPR関連DNA切断酵素Cpf1はCRISPR RNA前駆体のプロセシングも行う

The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor CRISPR RNA p.517

The CRISPR-associated protein Cpf1 from Francisella novicida is a novel enzyme with specific, dual-endoribonuclease–endonuclease activities in precursor crRNA processing and crRNA-programmable cleavage of target DNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature17945

遺伝子工学:CRISPR RNAと複合体を形成したCpf1の結晶構造

The crystal structure of Cpf1 in complex with CRISPR RNA p.522

The crystal structure of monomeric Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cpf1 protein bound to CRISPR RNA is presented, establishing a framework for engineering LbCpf1 to improve its efficiency and specificity for genome editing.

doi: 10.1038/nature17944


Crystal structure of the human σ1 receptor p.527

The X-ray crystal structures of the human σ1 receptor bound to two different ligands are reported, revealing the overall architecture, oligomerization state, and molecular basis for ligand recognition by this protein.

doi: 10.1038/nature17391

「Journal home」に戻る