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Editorials

米国に深刻な被害をもたらしているハリケーン「ハービー」は、気候科学を現実に生かす難しさを如実に示している。

Extreme weather events are the new normal p.499

Hurricane Harvey highlights the struggle to apply climate science.

doi: 10.1038/548499b

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米国トランプ政権が石炭産業の健康被害に関する研究の停止を命じたことは、学問の自由への攻撃だ。

Closure of US coal study marks an alarming precedent p.499

The Trump administration has stepped up its assault on environmental protections by halting a US$1-million study on the health risks of coal mining — casting a pall on academic freedom.

doi: 10.1038/548499a

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News

ドイツ・ハンブルグの世界最大のX線自由電子レーザーEuropean XFELが、運用開始へ。

Europe’s X-ray laser fires up p.507

High-speed shooter will help scientists to make molecular movies.

doi: 10.1038/548507a

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オーストラリアでの訴訟で、気候変動の経済的影響を予測する難しさが浮き彫りに。

Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning p.508

Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice.

doi: 10.1038/548508a

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米国務省の科学特使が、トランプ大統領の人種差別や気候変動に対する姿勢を批判し、辞任。

US science envoy resigns in protest at Trump policies p.509

Energy researcher Daniel Kammen faults US president’s positions on climate change and energy and his failure to condemn white supremacists.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22510

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体を寄せ合って暖をとっていたと見られる7000万年前の3体の恐竜の化石が。

Dinosaur trio roosted together like birds p.510

The animals seem to have died while huddling together 70 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22508

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南北戦争での潜水艦H・L・ハンリー沈没の原因が、シミュレーションで明らかに。

Scientists solve mystery of US Civil War submarine p.511

Blast from Hunley’s own torpedo probably killed its crew instantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22447

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News Features

惑星科学:カッシーニの13年

Cassini’s 13 years of stunning Saturn science — in pictures p.512

土星軌道に投入された初めての探査機カッシーニは、土星やその衛星周辺を周回し、目覚ましい科学的成果を挙げてきた。

doi: 10.1038/548512a

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News & Views

天文学:星の墓場を掘り起こす

Astronomy: Cosmic exhumation p.526

激変星として知られる連星系は、新星と呼ばれる大爆発を示す。今回、新星爆発から数百年たった系が観測され、こうした爆発の長期的な影響の詳細が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/548526a

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微生物学:謎のメッセンジャーの事例

Microbiology: The case of the mysterious messenger p.527

細菌やアーキアは、CRISPR–Casと呼ばれる適応免疫系を用いて、ウイルス感染に対抗している。今回、この免疫系において重要な役割を担っている分子群が特定され、こうした免疫に関する理解が深まった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23532

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生物地球化学:初期の動物を進化させた食糧

Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution p.528

藻類が太古の海洋において生態学的に重要なプランクトンになったタイムラインが見直され、海水の化学的変化と海洋生態系における動物の出現の間の関連が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23539

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心臓疾患:変異をまねる薬剤候補

Heart disease: Putative medicines that mimic mutations p.530

今回、ANGPTL3タンパク質の活性や産生を阻害する分子が、マウスや健康なヒトのリポタンパク質やコレステロールの血中濃度を下げ、ANGPTL3の遺伝子変異の予防効果を模倣していることが見いだされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature23544

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古気候:火山活動によって生じた太古の地球温暖化

Palaeoclimate: Volcanism caused ancient global warming p.531

火山活動が原因で、地球史上最も速い温暖化事象の1つが生じていたことが、今回確証された。しかし、温室効果ガスの放出は、負のフィードバックによって海洋の酸性化などの影響を緩和するのに十分緩やかだった。

doi: 10.1038/548531a

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生化学:代謝を促進する毒素

Biochemistry: A toxin that fuels metabolism p.533

細胞内で生成され、DNAを損傷する物質であるホルムアルデヒドが、炭素原子を1つ含む分子ユニットが関与する代謝過程を維持し、代謝とDNA保護機構を結び付けていることが今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23541

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回顧:インフラマソームの発見から15年

In Retrospect: The inflammasome turns 15 p.534

2002年におけるインフラマソームタンパク質複合体の発見は、免疫系が炎症を生じさせる仕組みを理解する上で飛躍的な進歩であった。現在、インフラマソーム活性を調節して疾患を治療する試みがなされている。

doi: 10.1038/548534a

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Articles

免疫療法:がん免疫療法に不可欠な遺伝子群の特定

Identification of essential genes for cancer immunotherapy p.537

The authors describe a two-cell-type CRISPR screen to identify tumour-intrinsic genes that regulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to effector T cell function.

doi: 10.1038/nature23477

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微生物学:III型CRISPR–Cas系はサイクリックオリゴアデニル酸のセカンドメッセンジャーを産生する

Type III CRISPR–Cas systems produce cyclic oligoadenylate second messengers p.543

CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 is activated by a cyclic oligoadenylate second messenger generated by Cas10 activity in the CRISPR type III interference complex, representing a novel mechanism of CRISPR interference.

doi: 10.1038/nature23467

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生化学:哺乳類は内因性の遺伝毒性ホルムアルデヒドを一炭素代謝へ流用する

Mammals divert endogenous genotoxic formaldehyde into one-carbon metabolism p.549

The mechanism by which formaldehyde, a potent DNA and protein crosslinking agent, is generated from folate is described, with implications for the treatment of certain cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature23481

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Letters

天文学:畳み込みニューラルネットワークを用いた強力な重力レンズの高速な自動解析法

Fast automated analysis of strong gravitational lenses with convolutional neural networks p.555

Estimates of parameters of strong gravitational lenses are obtained in an automated way using convolutional neural networks, with similar accuracy and greatly improved speed compared to previous methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature23463

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天文学:さそり座1437年新星の子孫の固有運動による年齢決定

Proper-motion age dating of the progeny of Nova Scorpii AD 1437 p.558

‘Cataclysmic variables’ are binary star systems in which one star of the pair is a white dwarf, and which often generate bright and energetic stellar outbursts. Classical novae are one type of outburst: when the white dwarf accretes enough matter from its companion, the resulting hydrogen-rich atmospheric envelope can host a runaway thermonuclear reaction that generates a rapid brightening. Achieving peak luminosities of up to one million times that of the Sun, all classical novae are recurrent, on timescales of months to millennia. During the century before and after an eruption, the ‘novalike’ binary systems that give rise to classical novae exhibit high rates of mass transfer to their white dwarfs. Another type of outburst is the dwarf nova: these occur in binaries that have stellar masses and periods indistinguishable from those of novalikes but much lower mass-transfer rates, when accretion-disk instabilities drop matter onto the white dwarfs. The co-existence at the same orbital period of novalike binaries and dwarf novae—which are identical but for their widely varying accretion rates—has been a longstanding puzzle. Here we report the recovery of the binary star underlying the classical nova eruption of 11 March AD 1437 (refs 12, 13), and independently confirm its age by proper-motion dating. We show that, almost 500 years after a classical-nova event, the system exhibited dwarf-nova eruptions. The three other oldest recovered classical novae display nova shells, but lack firm post-eruption ages, and are also dwarf novae at present. We conclude that many old novae become dwarf novae for part of the millennia between successive nova eruptions.

doi: 10.1038/nature23644

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物性物理学:正方晶ホイスラー材料における室温を超える温度での磁気反スキルミオン

Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials p.561

Antiskyrmions, in which the magnetization rotates both as a transverse helix and as a cycloid, are found in acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds over a wide range of temperatures.

doi: 10.1038/nature23466

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ナノ科学:分子機械が細胞膜に穴を開ける

Molecular machines open cell membranes p.567

Rotary molecular machines, activated by ultraviolet light, are able to perturb and drill into cell membranes in a controllable manner, and more efficiently than those exhibiting flip-flopping or random motion.

doi: 10.1038/nature23657

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古気候学:暁新世・始新世境界温暖化極大期における大半が火山由来の炭素の大量放出

Very large release of mostly volcanic carbon during the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum p.573

The Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global warming event that occurred about 56 million years ago, and is commonly thought to have been driven primarily by the destabilization of carbon from surface sedimentary reservoirs such as methane hydrates. However, it remains controversial whether such reservoirs were indeed the source of the carbon that drove the warming. Resolving this issue is key to understanding the proximal cause of the warming, and to quantifying the roles of triggers versus feedbacks. Here we present boron isotope data—a proxy for seawater pH—that show that the ocean surface pH was persistently low during the PETM. We combine our pH data with a paired carbon isotope record in an Earth system model in order to reconstruct the unfolding carbon-cycle dynamics during the event. We find strong evidence for a much larger (more than 10,000 petagrams)—and, on average, isotopically heavier—carbon source than considered previously. This leads us to identify volcanism associated with the North Atlantic Igneous Province, rather than carbon from a surface reservoir, as the main driver of the PETM. This finding implies that climate-driven amplification of organic carbon feedbacks probably played only a minor part in driving the event. However, we find that enhanced burial of organic matter seems to have been important in eventually sequestering the released carbon and accelerating the recovery of the Earth system.

doi: 10.1038/nature23646

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生物地球化学:クライオジェニアンの海洋における藻類の繁栄と動物の出現

The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals p.578

Steroid biomarkers provide evidence for a rapid rise of marine planktonic algae between 659 and 645 million years ago, establishing more efficient energy transfers and driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature23457

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神経科学:不確帯のLhx6陽性GABA放出ニューロンが睡眠を促進する

Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep p.582

GABAergic Lhx6+ neurons in the ventral zona incerta promote both rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep and inhibit the activity of wake-promoting GABAergic and Hcrt+ neurons of the lateral hypothalamus.

doi: 10.1038/nature23663

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幹細胞:定常状態の上皮代謝回転と器官のサイズのフィードバック調節

Feedback regulation of steady-state epithelial turnover and organ size p.588

Steady-state turnover of the Drosophila midgut arises through an intercellular, E-cadherin–EGFR relay that couples the death of individual enterocytes to the divisions of nearby stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23678

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幹細胞:ヒトiPS細胞由来のドーパミン作動性ニューロンは霊長類パーキンソン病モデルにおいて機能する

Human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a primate Parkinson’s disease model p.592

In a preclinical study, dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were implanted into a primate model of Parkinson’s disease, where they were found to exhibit long-term survival, function as mid-brain dopaminergic neurons, and increase spontaneous movements.

doi: 10.1038/nature23664

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免疫学:2種類のLAIR1挿入様式で作製された、マラリア抗原に対するパブリック抗体

Public antibodies to malaria antigens generated by two LAIR1 insertion modalities p.597

Up to 10% of individuals in malaria-endemic regions produce antibodies that react to malaria antigens through an additional LAIR1 domain that is inserted by two different insertion modalities.

doi: 10.1038/nature23670

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免疫学:LKB1シグナル伝達によるTreg細胞の代謝適合と機能適合の恒常性制御

Homeostatic control of metabolic and functional fitness of Treg cells by LKB1 signalling p.602

The tumour suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) regulates the metabolic and functional fitness of regulatory T cells in the control of immune tolerance and homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23665

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生化学:ISWIクロマチンリモデリング因子はヌクレオソームの修飾を感知してどの基質を選ぶかを決める

ISWI chromatin remodellers sense nucleosome modifications to determine substrate preference p.607

A high-throughput approach using a DNA-barcoded nucleosome library shows that ISWI chromatin remodellers can distinguish between differently modified nucleosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature23671

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