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Editorials

科学的関心は、保守かリベラルかという政治的立場によって大きな違いがあることが、書籍購入の調査研究から明らかになった。

How to judge a book by its network p.5

A breakdown of purchasing habits shows where science books fall on the political spectrum.

doi: 10.1038/544005b

日本のドナー由来のiPS細胞治療の成功は称賛に値するものであり、今後の商業化に向け、これまでと同様に細心の注意を払って進めていくべきだ。

Pioneering cell transplant shows vision and promise p.5

Japan deserves praise for early success, but must still exercise caution in commercializing induced pluripotent stem-cell treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21757

英国のEU離脱に伴い、EU公用語としての英語の位置付けや、これまで英国にあった主要機関の移転先について、先行きが見えなくなっている。

Europe must find a new home for its drug regulator — and a way to keep using English p.6

Brexit is forcing agencies to relocate their headquarters, and member states to rethink their language choices.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21762

News

有望ながん免疫療法が、一部の患者ではがんの進行を促進する恐れが。

Promising cancer drugs may speed tumours in some patients p.13

Early studies fuel scientists’ determination to understand how immunotherapy may sometimes make disease worse.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21755

NIHがこれまでに資金を提供してきた研究は、商品化特許に予想以上の寄与をしていたことが明らかに。

NIH research grants yield economic windfall p.14

More than 30% of biomedical studies funded by the US government are later cited in commercial patents.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21752

メキシコの海中洞窟で見つかった1万2000年前の少女の骨の解析から、この少女が過酷な生活をしていたことや、妊娠・出産を経験していたことなどが明らかに。

Ancient bones reveal girl's tough life in early Americas p.15

Teenage mother who lived 12,000 years ago was malnourished but still roamed widely.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21753

動物の航路決定に関わるとされた分子に、多くの疑問が。

Compass protein attracts heap of criticism p.16

Debate grows over a molecule implicated in animal navigation.

doi: 10.1038/544016a

米国で誕生した「3人の親を持つ」赤ちゃんについて、詳細データの報告が。

Genetic details of controversial 'three-parent baby' revealed p.17

But the child's parents have decided to forego long-term monitoring by researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21761

News Features

公衆衛生:アフリカでゲノムを役立てる

How the genomics revolution could finally help Africa p.20

国際的な資金提供団体からの投資が集まっているアフリカで、プレシジョン・メディシンの導入に期待が高まっているが、費用に見合った効果は得られるのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/544020a

News & Views

素粒子物理学:ニュートリノを放出しない崩壊の探索

Particle physics: The search for no neutrinos p.38

反物質ではなく物質が宇宙の大半を占めている理由の説明に役立つ可能性がある、捉えるのが困難な核崩壊の証拠はまだ得られていない。これまでにない感度に改良された実験によって、今後もこうした探索が続けられていくだろう。

doi: 10.1038/544038a

生物地球化学:陸生植物による炭素取り込みの大幅な増加

Biogeochemistry: Large rise in carbon uptake by land plants p.39

光合成のために植物が取り込む二酸化炭素の量の代理指標を用いて、過去の全球の取り込み量を見積もった結果、取り込み量が大きく増加しており、大気中の二酸化炭素濃度の上昇を部分的に相殺してきた可能性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/544039a

生体力学:蚊の空気力学的な羽音

Biomechanics: The aerodynamics buzz from mosquitoes p.40

蚊は、その細長い翅を、同じくらいのサイズの昆虫より4倍速い速度で羽ばたかせている。蚊の飛行の画像解析と数値解析によって、これまで動物の飛翔には見られなかった空気力学的機構がいくつか明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21904

構造生物学:代謝回転を促進する受容体

Structural biology: Receptors grease the metabolic wheels p.42

アディポネクチン受容体の構造に関する知見から、こうしたタンパク質には、その配位子であるアディポネクチンホルモンによるシグナル伝達能力をもたらす固有の酵素活性があることを示す証拠が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature21900

材料科学:鎖かたびらがホール効果を反転させる

Materials science: Chain mail reverses the Hall effect p.44

一般的には、材料の電荷担体の符号は「ホール電圧」の符号に反映される。しかし今回、鎖かたびらに着想を得て作製された三次元構造体で、電荷担体を変えなくても、構造を変えるとホール電圧が逆転することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21902

生化学:ワインによって生じる分解

Biochemistry: A wine-induced breakdown p.45

ラムノガラクツロナンIIと呼ばれる多糖類は一部の果実の主成分であるが、ヒトはその消化を腸内微生物相に依存している。ラムノガラクツロナンIIの消化に関与する微生物と過程が今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21901

Articles

素粒子物理学:GERDAによる76Geのニュートリノレス二重β崩壊のバックグラウンドのない探索

Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA p.47

If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge should occur; a new lower-limit half-life of 5 × 1025 years for this process has now been determined under background-free conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21717

幹細胞:骨髄前駆細胞クラスターは緊急時と白血病における骨髄造血を担っている

Myeloid progenitor cluster formation drives emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis p.53

During emergency myelopoiesis in mice, clusters of self-renewing granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) are transiently formed in the bone marrow cavity to produce a burst of myeloid cells; in leukaemia, GMP clusters persist and constantly generate myeloid leukaemia cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature21693

細胞生物学:個々の哺乳類ゲノムの3D構造を単一細胞Hi-C法で解析する

3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C p.59

A chromosome conformation capture method in which single cells are first imaged and then processed enables intact genome folding to be studied at a scale of 100 kb, validated, and analysed to generate hypotheses about 3D genomic interactions and organisation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21429

生化学:腸内細菌による複雑なペクチンの代謝が明らかにする新たな触媒機能

Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions p.65

The hierarchical deconstruction of the complex pectic glycan rhamnogalacturonan-II by the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals seven new families of glycoside hydrolases and three catalytic functions not previously observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21725

Letters

天文学:赤方偏移3.717に位置する静穏な大質量銀河

A massive, quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 3.717 p.71

A massive ancient galaxy with minimal star formation is observed spectroscopically at an epoch when the Universe is less than 2 billion years old, posing a challenge to theories.

doi: 10.1038/nature21680

ナノスケール材料:ファセット選択的エピタキシーによって可能になったコロイド量子ドット固体における連続波レーザー発振

Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy p.75

By switching shell growth on and off on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores to produce a built-in biaxial strain that lowers the optical gain threshold, we achieve continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot films.

doi: 10.1038/nature21424

化学:Pt/α- MoC触媒を用いて水とメタノールから低温で水素を生成する

Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts p.80

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200–350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM). This method requires less energy, and the simpler and more compact device design allows direct integration into PEMFC stacks. There remains, however, the need for an efficient APRM catalyst. Here we report that platinum (Pt) atomically dispersed on α-molybdenum carbide (α-MoC) enables low-temperature (150–190 degrees Celsius), base-free hydrogen production through APRM, with an average turnover frequency reaching 18,046 moles of hydrogen per mole of platinum per hour. We attribute this exceptional hydrogen production—which far exceeds that of previously reported low-temperature APRM catalysts—to the outstanding ability of α-MoC to induce water dissociation, and to the fact that platinum and α-MoC act in synergy to activate methanol and then to reform it.

doi: 10.1038/nature21672

生物地球化学:全球の陸域の総一次生産量の過去に見られた大きな増加

Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production p.84

Long-term records of global carbonyl sulfide levels reveal that terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) increased by around 30% during the twentieth century—a finding that may aid understanding of the connection between GPP growth and climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature22030

進化学:脊椎動物の腸ニューロンの体幹由来神経堤からの古い進化的起源

Ancient evolutionary origin of vertebrate enteric neurons from trunk-derived neural crest p.88

Whereas the enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates is derived largely from the vagal neural crest, that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is populated by trunk-derived neural crest cells that may be homologous to Schwann cell precursors.

doi: 10.1038/nature21679

生体力学:巧みな翅の回転と後縁渦が蚊の高周波数の飛翔を可能にしている

Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight p.92

In addition to generating lift by leading-edge vortices (as used by most insects), mosquitoes also employ trailing-edge vortices and a lift mechanism from wing rotation, which enables them to stay airborne despite having a seemingly unlikely airframe.

doi: 10.1038/nature21727

神経科学:小脳顆粒細胞は報酬の期待を符号化する

Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward p.96

A sizable fraction of granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward, with different populations responding to reward delivery, anticipation and omission, with some responses evolving over time with learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature21726

微生物学:CRISPR–Cas系はウイルスDNAの注入を利用して適応免疫の確立と維持を行う

CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity p.101

Analysis of spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus reveals that type II CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to ensure a successful CRISPR immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature21719

免疫学:肺は血小板生合成の場であり造血前駆細胞の貯蔵所である

The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors p.105

Direct imaging of the lung microcirculation in mice indicates that it is a major site of mature platelet production from megakaryocytes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21706

細胞生物学:単核Hi-C法によって、卵母細胞から受精卵への移行期の独特なクロマチン再編成が明らかになった

Single-nucleus Hi-C reveals unique chromatin reorganization at oocyte-to-zygote transition p.110

Using a single-nucleus Hi-C protocol, the authors find that spatial organization of chromatin during oocyte-to-zygote transition differs between paternal and maternal nuclei within a single-cell zygote.

doi: 10.1038/nature21711

遺伝学:DHX9はヒトゲノムへのAluの侵入により生じたRNAプロセシング異常を抑制する

DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome p.115

In the absence of DHX9, circular RNAs accumulate and transcription and translation are dysregulated—effects that are exacerbated by concomitant depletion of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR.

doi: 10.1038/nature21715

構造生物学:アディポネクチン受容体への構造的考察から示唆されたセラミダーゼ活性

Structural insights into adiponectin receptors suggest ceramidase activity p.120

Structures of the adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 combined with molecular dynamics simulations and enzymatic assays suggest that both receptors have intrinsic ceramidase activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature21714

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