How to judge a book by its network p.5

A breakdown of purchasing habits shows where science books fall on the political spectrum.

doi: 10.1038/544005b

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Pioneering cell transplant shows vision and promise p.5

Japan deserves praise for early success, but must still exercise caution in commercializing induced pluripotent stem-cell treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21757

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Europe must find a new home for its drug regulator — and a way to keep using English p.6

Brexit is forcing agencies to relocate their headquarters, and member states to rethink their language choices.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21762

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Promising cancer drugs may speed tumours in some patients p.13

Early studies fuel scientists’ determination to understand how immunotherapy may sometimes make disease worse.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21755

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NIH research grants yield economic windfall p.14

More than 30% of biomedical studies funded by the US government are later cited in commercial patents.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21752

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Ancient bones reveal girl's tough life in early Americas p.15

Teenage mother who lived 12,000 years ago was malnourished but still roamed widely.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21753

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Compass protein attracts heap of criticism p.16

Debate grows over a molecule implicated in animal navigation.

doi: 10.1038/544016a

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Genetic details of controversial 'three-parent baby' revealed p.17

But the child's parents have decided to forego long-term monitoring by researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21761

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News Features


How the genomics revolution could finally help Africa p.20


doi: 10.1038/544020a

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News & Views


Particle physics: The search for no neutrinos p.38


doi: 10.1038/544038a

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Biogeochemistry: Large rise in carbon uptake by land plants p.39


doi: 10.1038/544039a

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Biomechanics: The aerodynamics buzz from mosquitoes p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature21904

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Structural biology: Receptors grease the metabolic wheels p.42


doi: 10.1038/nature21900

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Materials science: Chain mail reverses the Hall effect p.44


doi: 10.1038/nature21902

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Biochemistry: A wine-induced breakdown p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature21901

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Background-free search for neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with GERDA p.47

If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge should occur; a new lower-limit half-life of 5 × 1025 years for this process has now been determined under background-free conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21717

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Myeloid progenitor cluster formation drives emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis p.53

During emergency myelopoiesis in mice, clusters of self-renewing granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) are transiently formed in the bone marrow cavity to produce a burst of myeloid cells; in leukaemia, GMP clusters persist and constantly generate myeloid leukaemia cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature21693

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3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C p.59

A chromosome conformation capture method in which single cells are first imaged and then processed enables intact genome folding to be studied at a scale of 100 kb, validated, and analysed to generate hypotheses about 3D genomic interactions and organisation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21429

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Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions p.65

The hierarchical deconstruction of the complex pectic glycan rhamnogalacturonan-II by the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals seven new families of glycoside hydrolases and three catalytic functions not previously observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21725

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A massive, quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 3.717 p.71

A massive ancient galaxy with minimal star formation is observed spectroscopically at an epoch when the Universe is less than 2 billion years old, posing a challenge to theories.

doi: 10.1038/nature21680

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Continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids enabled by facet-selective epitaxy p.75

By switching shell growth on and off on the (0001) facet of wurtzite CdSe cores to produce a built-in biaxial strain that lowers the optical gain threshold, we achieve continuous-wave lasing in colloidal quantum dot films.

doi: 10.1038/nature21424

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化学:Pt/α- MoC触媒を用いて水とメタノールから低温で水素を生成する

Low-temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/α-MoC catalysts p.80

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200–350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM). This method requires less energy, and the simpler and more compact device design allows direct integration into PEMFC stacks. There remains, however, the need for an efficient APRM catalyst. Here we report that platinum (Pt) atomically dispersed on α-molybdenum carbide (α-MoC) enables low-temperature (150–190 degrees Celsius), base-free hydrogen production through APRM, with an average turnover frequency reaching 18,046 moles of hydrogen per mole of platinum per hour. We attribute this exceptional hydrogen production—which far exceeds that of previously reported low-temperature APRM catalysts—to the outstanding ability of α-MoC to induce water dissociation, and to the fact that platinum and α-MoC act in synergy to activate methanol and then to reform it.

doi: 10.1038/nature21672

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Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production p.84

Long-term records of global carbonyl sulfide levels reveal that terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) increased by around 30% during the twentieth century—a finding that may aid understanding of the connection between GPP growth and climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature22030

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Ancient evolutionary origin of vertebrate enteric neurons from trunk-derived neural crest p.88

Whereas the enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates is derived largely from the vagal neural crest, that of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is populated by trunk-derived neural crest cells that may be homologous to Schwann cell precursors.

doi: 10.1038/nature21679

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Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight p.92

In addition to generating lift by leading-edge vortices (as used by most insects), mosquitoes also employ trailing-edge vortices and a lift mechanism from wing rotation, which enables them to stay airborne despite having a seemingly unlikely airframe.

doi: 10.1038/nature21727

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Cerebellar granule cells encode the expectation of reward p.96

A sizable fraction of granule cells convey information about the expectation of reward, with different populations responding to reward delivery, anticipation and omission, with some responses evolving over time with learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature21726

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CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity p.101

Analysis of spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus reveals that type II CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to ensure a successful CRISPR immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature21719

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The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors p.105

Direct imaging of the lung microcirculation in mice indicates that it is a major site of mature platelet production from megakaryocytes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21706

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Single-nucleus Hi-C reveals unique chromatin reorganization at oocyte-to-zygote transition p.110

Using a single-nucleus Hi-C protocol, the authors find that spatial organization of chromatin during oocyte-to-zygote transition differs between paternal and maternal nuclei within a single-cell zygote.

doi: 10.1038/nature21711

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DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome p.115

In the absence of DHX9, circular RNAs accumulate and transcription and translation are dysregulated—effects that are exacerbated by concomitant depletion of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR.

doi: 10.1038/nature21715

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Structural insights into adiponectin receptors suggest ceramidase activity p.120

Structures of the adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 combined with molecular dynamics simulations and enzymatic assays suggest that both receptors have intrinsic ceramidase activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature21714

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